Timing and climatic consequences of the opening of drake passage h d sher e e martin nature 2006
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Timing and Climatic Consequences of the Opening of Drake Passage H.D. Sher E.E. Martin, Nature. 2006. Evidence. Abrupt climate reversal 34Ma: Permanent glaciation of Antarctica Increased biological productivity. Hypotheses. Opening of Drake Passage Increased inter-basin exchange

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Timing and climatic consequences of the opening of drake passage h d sher e e martin nature 2006

Timing and Climatic Consequences of the Opening of Drake PassageH.D. Sher E.E. Martin, Nature. 2006


Evidence
Evidence Passage

  • Abrupt climate reversal

    • 34Ma: Permanent glaciation of Antarctica

  • Increased biological productivity


Hypotheses
Hypotheses Passage

  • Opening of Drake Passage

  • Increased inter-basin exchange

  • This leads to upwelling induced productivity in the Ocean

  • Reduced poleward heat transport to Antarctica


Method
Method Passage

  • Neodymium isotope ratio Nd143/Nd144

    • Ratio is high (more radiogenic) on the Pacific sector of Antarctica. Due to the presence of young volcanic rock in this sector. ND=-3

    • In the Atlantic sector, the terrain is much older and have much lower ND ratio. ND=-9

  • Ferro-Manganese ocean crust and fossil fish teeth preserves the Nd signal.

    • Fossil fish teeth have a better resolution than ocean crust


Neodymium record 46ma to present
Neodymium record Passage46Ma to present


Interpretation
Interpretation Passage

  • Atlantic sector water mixes with Pacific sector waters (radiogenic).

  • OR

  • Pacific water enters the Atlantic sector (Indian Ocean)  90 east ridge forms a barrier between east-west of the ridge

  • Pacific water enters the Atlantic through the Panama passage  Romanche Fracture zone and Walvis ridge show no signs of Pacific water intrusions.


Problems
Problems Passage

  • Why is the signal at Maud Rise less significant?

    • Ocean stratified, and the Pacific signal remained at depth

    • Proto Polar Front at Maude rise which would have isolated the water at Maude rise from the influence from the Pacific sector. This front is apparent in paleo productivity across that front from one side to the other


Hypothesis
Hypothesis Passage

  • Opening of Drake Passage  increase mixing in the southern ocean  more nutrient upwelling  more productivity  more carbon sequestration  less CO2 in the atmosphere

  • And possibly less poleward heat transport associated with the opening of the Drake Passage


Delta o18 record 70ma to present
Delta O18 record Passage70Ma to present


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