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The 'impact analysis' or detailed study phase of EIA involves:. identifying the impacts more specifically predicting the characteristics of the main impacts evaluating the significance of the residual impact. The term ‘environment’ includes:. human health and safety

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The impact analysis or detailed study phase of eia involves l.jpg
The 'impact analysis' or detailed study phase of EIA involves:

  • identifying the impacts more specifically

  • predicting the characteristics of the main impacts

  • evaluating the significance of the residual impact

UNEP Training Resource Manual


The term environment includes l.jpg
The term ‘environment’ includes: involves:

  • human health and safety

  • flora, fauna, ecosystems and biodiversity

  • soil, water, air, climate and landscape

  • use of land, natural resources and raw materials

  • protected areas and sites of special significance

  • heritage, recreation and amenity assets

  • livelihood, lifestyle and well being of affected communities

UNEP Training Resource Manual


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Impact identification methods involves:

  • checklists

  • matrices

  • networks

  • overlays and geographical information systems (GIS)

  • expert systems

  • professional judgement

UNEP Training Resource Manual


Example of a checklist l.jpg
Example of a checklist involves:

(For rural and urban water supply and sanitation projects)

UNEP Training Resource Manual

Topic 6 Slide 4


Example of a leopold matrix l.jpg
Example of a Leopold matrix involves:

UNEP Training Resource Manual

Topic 6 Slide 5


Example of a network l.jpg
Example of a network involves:

(showing linkages leading to changes in quality of life, wildlife and tourism)

(Bisset)

UNEP Training Resource Manual


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Choice of EIA method depends on: involves:

  • the type and size of the proposal

  • the type of alternatives being considered

  • the nature of the likely impacts;

  • the availability of impact identification methods

  • the experience of the EIA team with their use

  • the resources available - cost, information, time, personnel

UNEP Training Resource Manual


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Main advantages and disadvantages of impact identification methods

UNEP Training Resource Manual


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Information required to establish baseline conditions methods

  • current conditions

  • current and expected trends

  • effects of proposals already being implemented

  • effects of other proposals yet to be implemented

UNEP Training Resource Manual


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An environmental impact methods

(Wathern, 1988)

UNEP Training Resource Manual


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Impact characteristics can vary in: methods

  • nature (positive/negative, direct/indirect)

  • magnitude (severe, moderate, low)

  • extent/location (area/volume covered, distribution)

  • timing (during construction, operation etc, immediate, delayed)

  • duration (short term/long term, intermittent/continuous)

  • reversibility/irreversibility

  • likelihood (probability, uncertainty)

  • significance (local, regional, global)

UNEP Training Resource Manual


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Impact characteristic summary table methods

UNEP Training Resource Manual


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Methods of impact prediction methods

  • ‘best estimate’ professional judgement

  • quantitative mathematical models

  • experiments and physical models

  • case studies as analogues or references

UNEP Training Resource Manual


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Types of uncertainty in impact prediction methods

  • scientific uncertainty – limited understanding of the ecosystem or community affected

  • data uncertainty – incomplete information or insufficient methodology

  • policy uncertainty – unclear or disputed objectives or standards

UNEP Training Resource Manual


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Types of social impact methods

  • demographic – changes to population numbers, distribution

  • cultural – changes to customs, traditions and values

  • community– changes to cohesion, relationships etc.

  • socio-psychological – changes to quality of life and well being

UNEP Training Resource Manual


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Health impacts methods

UNEP Training Resource Manual


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Factors affecting economic impacts methods

  • duration of construction and operation

  • workforce requirements for each period

  • skill requirements (local availability)

  • earning

  • raw material and other input purchases

  • capital investment

  • outputs

  • the characteristics of the local economy

UNEP Training Resource Manual


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Factors affecting fiscal impacts methods

  • size of investment and workforce requirements

  • capacity of existing service delivery and infrastructure systems

  • local/regional tax or other revenue raising processes

  • demographic changes arising from project requirements

UNEP Training Resource Manual


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Examples of threshold tests for environmental acceptability methods

Topic 6 Slide 19

UNEP Training Resource Manual


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Key elements for assessing impact significance methods

  • environmental standards

  • level of public concern

  • scientific and professional evidence concerning:

    - resource loss/ecological damage

    - negative social impacts

    - foreclosure of land and resource use options

UNEP Training Resource Manual


Guiding principles for determining impact significance l.jpg
Guiding principles for determining impact significance methods:

  • use established procedure or guidance

  • adapt relevant criteria or comparable cases

  • assign significance rationally and defensibly

  • be consistent in the comparison of alternatives

  • document the reasons for judgements

UNEP Training Resource Manual


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Test for significance by asking three questions methods

  • Are there residual environmental impacts?

  • If yes, are these likely to be significant or not?

  • If yes, are these significant effects likely to occur?

UNEP Training Resource Manual


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Impact significance criteria methods

  • environmental loss and deterioration

  • social impacts resulting from environmental change

  • non-conformity with environmental standards

  • probability and acceptability of risk

UNEP Training Resource Manual


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Ecological significance criteria methods

  • reduction in species diversity

  • habitat depletion or fragmentation

  • threatened, rare and endangered species

  • impairment of ecological functions e.g.

    • disruption of food chains;

    • decline in species population;

    • alterations in predator-prey relationships.

UNEP Training Resource Manual


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Social significance criteria methods

  • human health and safety

  • decline in important resource

  • loss of valued area

  • displacement of people

  • disruption of communities

  • demands on services and infrastructure

UNEP Training Resource Manual


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Environmental standards methods

  • limits on effluent discharge concentrations

  • clean air standards, water quality standards

  • policy objectives and targets

  • plans or policies that protect or limit use of natural resources

UNEP Training Resource Manual


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Alternative approaches to determine significance methods

  • apply technical criteria when changes are predictable

  • use negotiation when significance is disputable

UNEP Training Resource Manual


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Practical guidance methods

Impacts are likely to be significant if they:

  • are extensive over space or time

  • are intensive in concentration or in relation to assimilative capacity

  • exceed environmental standards or thresholds

  • do not comply with environmental policies/ land use plans

  • affect ecological sensitive areas and heritage resources

  • affect community lifestyle, traditional land uses and values

UNEP Training Resource Manual


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