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Chapter 5: Ancient Greece. Section 1: Early People of the Aegean Section 2: The Rise of the Greek City-States Section 3: Victory & Defeat in the Greek World Section 4: The Glory that was Greece Section 5: Alexander & the Hellenistic Age. Section 1: Early People of the Aegean. Summary:

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Chapter 5 ancient greece

Chapter 5: Ancient Greece

Section 1: Early People of the Aegean

Section 2: The Rise of the Greek City-States

Section 3: Victory & Defeat in the Greek World

Section 4: The Glory that was Greece

Section 5: Alexander & the Hellenistic Age


Section 1 early people of the aegean
Section 1: Early People of the Aegean

  • Summary:

    • The Minoans and the Mycenaeans were the first Greek civilizations


Section 1 early people of the aegean1
Section 1: Early People of the Aegean

  • Around 1750 B.C., the Minoans built the first Greek civilization on the island of Crete in the eastern Mediterranean sea


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Section 1: Early People of the Aegean

  • The Minoans were sea traders who traveled to Egypt and Mesopotamia

    • Through trade they learned new ideas and technology

      • The Minoans adapted these new ideas to their own culture


Section 1 early people of the aegean3
Section 1: Early People of the Aegean

  • The Mycenaeans conquered Crete around 1400 B.C. and built a new civilization

    • The Mycenaeans were also sea traders

      • They traded with Sicily, Italy, Egypt, and Mesopotamia


Section 1 early people of the aegean4
Section 1: Early People of the Aegean

  • The Mycenaeans learned many skills, including writing, from the Minoans

    • They also learned from the Egyptians and Mesopotamians

      • They passed on these influences to later Greeks


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Section 1: Early People of the Aegean

  • The Mycenaeans are best remembered for the TrojanWar, which took place around 1250 B.C.

    • In this war, the Mycenaeans defeated the trading city of Troy



  • The the Iliad and the Odyssey give us clues about the lives of ancient Greeks

    • The poems have influenced writers and artists for almost 3,000 years



Section 1 early people of the aegean6
Section 1: Early People of the Aegean the

1100 B.C.-800 B.C.

People leave cities, trade declines, and people forget skills such as writing

1250 B.C.

Trojan War takes place

B.C.

1800 1700 1600 1500 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900

1750 B.C.-1500 B.C.

Minoan Civilization is at its height

1400 B.C.

Minoan Civilization vanishes; Mycenaeans conquer Greek mainland & Crete

1200 B.C.

Mycenaean Civilization crumbles


Section 2 the rise of the greek city states
Section 2: The Rise of the Greek City-States the

  • Summary:

    • Two powerful city-states, Athens and Sparta, arose in Greece


Section 2 the rise of the greek city states1
Section 2: The Rise of the Greek City-States the

  • Greece is made up of many isolated valleys and small islands

    • This geography prevented the Greeks from building a large empire like that of the Egyptians or Mesopotamians


Section 2 the rise of the greek city states2
Section 2: The Rise of the Greek City-States the

  • Instead, the Greeks built small city-states

    • These city-states frequently fought one another



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Section 2: The Rise of the Greek City-States the

  • The land owning nobles won power as time passed

    • They created an aristocracy, or government ruled by the landholding elite


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Section 2: The Rise of the Greek City-States the

  • In some city-states, a middle class of merchants, farmers, and artisans came to power

    • This form of government is called an oligarchy


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Section 2: The Rise of the Greek City-States the

  • The two most powerful city-states were Athens and Sparta

    • They developed very different ways of life


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Section 2: The Rise of the Greek City-States the

  • Sparta was a monarchy ruled by two kings (Dual Monarchy)

    • The Spartans created a military society

      • Spartan boys trained to be soldiers

      • Spartan girls trained to be mothers of soldiers


Section 2 the rise of the greek city states7
Section 2: The Rise of the Greek City-States the

  • Athens on the other hand developed a limiteddemocracy, or government by the people

    • However, only male citizens could vote in the assembly

      • Women could not participate

    • Unlike Sparta, Athens encouraged the arts, trade, and education


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Section 2: The Rise of the Greek City-States the

Athens

Sparta

-Monarchy

-Military society

-Trade & travel not allowed

-Military training for boys

-Girls trained to be mothers of soldiers

-Limited democracy

-Laws made by assembly

-Only male citizens in the assembly

-Traded with other city-states

-Common language

-Shared heroes

-Olympic Games

-Same gods and religious beliefs


Section 3 victory defeat in the greek world
Section 3: Victory & Defeat in the Greek World the

  • Summary:

    • Competition among Greek city-states led to conflict


Section 3 victory defeat in the greek world1
Section 3: Victory & Defeat in the Greek World the

  • In 490 B.C., the Persians attacked the Greek city-state of Athens

    • Other city-states joined Athens to fight the Persian Wars


Section 3 victory defeat in the greek world2
Section 3: Victory & Defeat in the Greek World the

  • After years of fighting, the Greeks defeated Persia

    • Athens emerged from the fighting as the most powerful city-state in Greece


Section 3 victory defeat in the greek world3
Section 3: Victory & Defeat in the Greek World the

  • The years after the Persian Wars were a Golden Age for Athens

    • A wise leader named Pericles ruled the city-state

      • This period is often called the Age of Pericles


Section 3 victory defeat in the greek world4
Section 3: Victory & Defeat in the Greek World the

  • Athens had a direct democracy under Pericles

    • This meant that male citizens helped to run the government

      • Pericles pointed out that citizens had a special responsibility to participate


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Section 3: Victory & Defeat in the Greek World the

  • Athens prospered in the Age ofPericles and became the culturalcenter of Greece

    • Many thinkers, writers, and artists came to Athens to take part in the growth of culture


Section 3 victory defeat in the greek world6
Section 3: Victory & Defeat in the Greek World the

  • Sparta and it allies, or partners, resented Athenian wealth and power

    • They formed a league to promote oligarchy

      • Athens and its allies supported democracy


Section 3 victory defeat in the greek world7
Section 3: Victory & Defeat in the Greek World the

  • The Peloponnesian War broke out between the two sides in 431 B.C.

    • After 27 years of fighting, Sparta defeated Athens

      • Soon after, Sparta fell to Thebes, another Greek city-state


Section 3 victory defeat in the greek world8
Section 3: Victory & Defeat in the Greek World the

  • Athenian democracy suffered, and the city declined

    • Fighting continued among the Greek city-states for almost another 50 years


Section 3 victory defeat in the greek world9
Section 3: Victory & Defeat in the Greek World the

Persian Wars 490 B.C.-479 B.C.

Athens fight Persia; other Greek city-states fight on Athenian side

Persians burn city of Athens

Greeks defeat Persians

Greeks believe gods protect them

Athens becomes most powerful city-state


Section 4 the glory that was greece
Section 4: The Glory that was Greece the

  • Summary:

    • Greek thinkers artists and writers explored the nature of the universe and the place of people in it


Section 4 the glory that was greece1
Section 4: The Glory that was Greece the

  • Greek thinkers tried to understand the reasons why things happened

    • The Greek called these thinkers philosophers

      • Socrates, Plato,and Aristotle were important Greek philosophers


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Section 4: The Glory that was Greece the

  • Socrates taught that people should examine their own beliefs and ideas


Section 4 the glory that was greece3
Section 4: The Glory that was Greece the

  • Plato, a student of Socrates, believed in reason

    • He taught that people could learn to organize an ideal society through the use of reason

      • Plato wanted a republic ruled by the best men and women


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Section 4: The Glory that was Greece the

  • Aristotle felt that people should try to live balanced lives

    • These ideas have influenced people since ancient times


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Section 4: The Glory that was Greece the

  • The Greeks believed in beauty, balance, and order in the universe

    • Greek art and architecture reflected those ideas


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Section 4: The Glory that was Greece the

  • Greek paintings and statues were lifelike but also idealistic, meaning that they showed individuals in their most perfect form


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Section 4: The Glory that was Greece the

  • The most famous Greek building was the Parthenon

    • Architects today still use ancient Greek ideas in their buildings


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Section 4: The Glory that was Greece the

  • Greek literature began with the epics of Homer

  • Greek poets wrote about joy and sorrow


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Section 4: The Glory that was Greece the

  • Plays had their roots in religious festivals

    • Actors performed outdoors with few props and little scenery

      • The characters wore masks that showed that the story was sad or happy


Section 4 the glory that was greece10
Section 4: The Glory that was Greece the

  • Aeschylus, Sophicles, and Euripides wrote tragedies, or plays that told the story of human conflict

    • Others created comedies

  • The Greeks were also concerned about accurate history



Section 5 alexander the hellenistic age
Section 5: Alexander & the Hellenistic Age the

  • Summary:

    • Alexander the Great created a large empire and spread Greek culture throughout the region


Section 5 alexander the hellenistic age1
Section 5: Alexander & the Hellenistic Age the

  • Macedonia was a mountain kingdom in the north of Greece

    • In 338 B. C., King Philip of Macedonia dominated all city-states to the south

      • His son, Alexander the Great, conquered the Persian empire and parts of India


Section 5 alexander the hellenistic age2
Section 5: Alexander & the Hellenistic Age the

  • Alexander spread Greek culture to many parts of the world

    • The conquered peoples learned Greek ways

      • The Greeks also learned the ways of the people they conquered

        • A new Hellenistic culture arose


Section 5 alexander the hellenistic age3
Section 5: Alexander & the Hellenistic Age the

  • Hellenistic culture blended parts of Greek, Persian, Egyptian, and Indian life


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Section 5: Alexander & the Hellenistic Age the

  • Alexander’s empire fell apart soon after his death

    • However, Greek culture had a lasting impact on the regions it had ruled


Section 5 alexander the hellenistic age5
Section 5: Alexander & the Hellenistic Age the

  • The city of Alexandria, Egypt, was at the heart of Hellenistic civilization

    • Its location made it a major marketplace of the empire

      • People from many nations met there


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Section 5: Alexander & the Hellenistic Age the

  • Alexandria was also a center of learning, with a museum, libraries, and a zoo

    • Its 440-foot-tall lighthouse was one of the wonders of the world


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Section 5: Alexander & the Hellenistic Age the

  • Hellenistic thinkers made great advances in the sciences and in mathematics

    • Pythagoras developed a formula designed to measure the sides of a right triangle


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Section 5: Alexander & the Hellenistic Age the

  • The astronomer Aristarchus discovered that the Earth moved around the sun

  • Archimedes explored the physical principles of the lever and the pulley


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Section 5: Alexander & the Hellenistic Age the

Persian Culture

Greek Culture

Hellenistic Civilization

Egyptian Culture

Indian Culture





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