Chapter 5 ancient greece
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Chapter 5: Ancient Greece. Section 1: Early People of the Aegean Section 2: The Rise of the Greek City-States Section 3: Victory & Defeat in the Greek World Section 4: The Glory that was Greece Section 5: Alexander & the Hellenistic Age. Section 1: Early People of the Aegean. Summary:

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Chapter 5: Ancient Greece

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Chapter 5 ancient greece

Chapter 5: Ancient Greece

Section 1: Early People of the Aegean

Section 2: The Rise of the Greek City-States

Section 3: Victory & Defeat in the Greek World

Section 4: The Glory that was Greece

Section 5: Alexander & the Hellenistic Age


Section 1 early people of the aegean

Section 1: Early People of the Aegean

  • Summary:

    • The Minoans and the Mycenaeans were the first Greek civilizations


Section 1 early people of the aegean1

Section 1: Early People of the Aegean

  • Around 1750 B.C., the Minoans built the first Greek civilization on the island of Crete in the eastern Mediterranean sea


Section 1 early people of the aegean2

Section 1: Early People of the Aegean

  • The Minoans were sea traders who traveled to Egypt and Mesopotamia

    • Through trade they learned new ideas and technology

      • The Minoans adapted these new ideas to their own culture


Section 1 early people of the aegean3

Section 1: Early People of the Aegean

  • The Mycenaeans conquered Crete around 1400 B.C. and built a new civilization

    • The Mycenaeans were also sea traders

      • They traded with Sicily, Italy, Egypt, and Mesopotamia


Section 1 early people of the aegean4

Section 1: Early People of the Aegean

  • The Mycenaeans learned many skills, including writing, from the Minoans

    • They also learned from the Egyptians and Mesopotamians

      • They passed on these influences to later Greeks


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Section 1: Early People of the Aegean

  • The Mycenaeans are best remembered for the TrojanWar, which took place around 1250 B.C.

    • In this war, the Mycenaeans defeated the trading city of Troy


Chapter 5 ancient greece

  • Much of what we know about this period comes from reading the epic poems of Homer

    • An epic is a long poem that tells the story of a hero or heroes


Chapter 5 ancient greece

  • The Iliad and the Odyssey give us clues about the lives of ancient Greeks

    • The poems have influenced writers and artists for almost 3,000 years


Chapter 5 ancient greece

  • Around 1200 B.C., sea raiders attacked the Mycenaeans

    • For the next 300 years, Greek civilization slowly declined


Section 1 early people of the aegean6

Section 1: Early People of the Aegean

1100 B.C.-800 B.C.

People leave cities, trade declines, and people forget skills such as writing

1250 B.C.

Trojan War takes place

B.C.

180017001600150014001300120011001000900

1750 B.C.-1500 B.C.

Minoan Civilization is at its height

1400 B.C.

Minoan Civilization vanishes; Mycenaeans conquer Greek mainland & Crete

1200 B.C.

Mycenaean Civilization crumbles


Section 2 the rise of the greek city states

Section 2: The Rise of the Greek City-States

  • Summary:

    • Two powerful city-states, Athens and Sparta, arose in Greece


Section 2 the rise of the greek city states1

Section 2: The Rise of the Greek City-States

  • Greece is made up of many isolated valleys and small islands

    • This geography prevented the Greeks from building a large empire like that of the Egyptians or Mesopotamians


Section 2 the rise of the greek city states2

Section 2: The Rise of the Greek City-States

  • Instead, the Greeks built small city-states

    • These city-states frequently fought one another


Chapter 5 ancient greece

  • Between 750 B.C. and 500 B.C., the Greek city-states tried different types of government

    • At first, city-states were ruled by kings

      • This type of government is called a monarchy


Section 2 the rise of the greek city states3

Section 2: The Rise of the Greek City-States

  • The land owning nobles won power as time passed

    • They created an aristocracy, or government ruled by the landholding elite


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Section 2: The Rise of the Greek City-States

  • In some city-states, a middle class of merchants, farmers, and artisans came to power

    • This form of government is called an oligarchy


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Section 2: The Rise of the Greek City-States

  • The two most powerful city-states were Athens and Sparta

    • They developed very different ways of life


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Section 2: The Rise of the Greek City-States

  • Sparta was a monarchy ruled by two kings (Dual Monarchy)

    • The Spartans created a military society

      • Spartan boys trained to be soldiers

      • Spartan girls trained to be mothers of soldiers


Section 2 the rise of the greek city states7

Section 2: The Rise of the Greek City-States

  • Athens on the other hand developed a limiteddemocracy, or government by the people

    • However, only male citizens could vote in the assembly

      • Women could not participate

    • Unlike Sparta, Athens encouraged the arts, trade, and education


Section 2 the rise of the greek city states8

Section 2: The Rise of the Greek City-States

Athens

Sparta

-Monarchy

-Military society

-Trade & travel not allowed

-Military training for boys

-Girls trained to be mothers of soldiers

-Limited democracy

-Laws made by assembly

-Only male citizens in the assembly

-Traded with other city-states

-Common language

-Shared heroes

-Olympic Games

-Same gods and religious beliefs


Section 3 victory defeat in the greek world

Section 3: Victory & Defeat in the Greek World

  • Summary:

    • Competition among Greek city-states led to conflict


Section 3 victory defeat in the greek world1

Section 3: Victory & Defeat in the Greek World

  • In 490 B.C., the Persians attacked the Greek city-state of Athens

    • Other city-states joined Athens to fight the Persian Wars


Section 3 victory defeat in the greek world2

Section 3: Victory & Defeat in the Greek World

  • After years of fighting, the Greeks defeated Persia

    • Athens emerged from the fighting as the most powerful city-state in Greece


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Section 3: Victory & Defeat in the Greek World

  • The years after the Persian Wars were a Golden Age for Athens

    • A wise leader named Pericles ruled the city-state

      • This period is often called the Age of Pericles


Section 3 victory defeat in the greek world4

Section 3: Victory & Defeat in the Greek World

  • Athens had a direct democracy under Pericles

    • This meant that male citizens helped to run the government

      • Pericles pointed out that citizens had a special responsibility to participate


Section 3 victory defeat in the greek world5

Section 3: Victory & Defeat in the Greek World

  • Athens prospered in the Age ofPericles and became the culturalcenter of Greece

    • Many thinkers, writers, and artists came to Athens to take part in the growth of culture


Section 3 victory defeat in the greek world6

Section 3: Victory & Defeat in the Greek World

  • Sparta and it allies, or partners, resented Athenian wealth and power

    • They formed a league to promote oligarchy

      • Athens and its allies supported democracy


Section 3 victory defeat in the greek world7

Section 3: Victory & Defeat in the Greek World

  • The Peloponnesian War broke out between the two sides in 431 B.C.

    • After 27 years of fighting, Sparta defeated Athens

      • Soon after, Sparta fell to Thebes, another Greek city-state


Section 3 victory defeat in the greek world8

Section 3: Victory & Defeat in the Greek World

  • Athenian democracy suffered, and the city declined

    • Fighting continued among the Greek city-states for almost another 50 years


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Section 3: Victory & Defeat in the Greek World

Persian Wars 490 B.C.-479 B.C.

Athens fight Persia; other Greek city-states fight on Athenian side

Persians burn city of Athens

Greeks defeat Persians

Greeks believe gods protect them

Athens becomes most powerful city-state


Section 4 the glory that was greece

Section 4: The Glory that was Greece

  • Summary:

    • Greek thinkers artists and writers explored the nature of the universe and the place of people in it


Section 4 the glory that was greece1

Section 4: The Glory that was Greece

  • Greek thinkers tried to understand the reasons why things happened

    • The Greek called these thinkers philosophers

      • Socrates, Plato,and Aristotle were important Greek philosophers


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Section 4: The Glory that was Greece

  • Socrates taught that people should examine their own beliefs and ideas


Section 4 the glory that was greece3

Section 4: The Glory that was Greece

  • Plato, a student of Socrates, believed in reason

    • He taught that people could learn to organize an ideal society through the use of reason

      • Plato wanted a republic ruled by the best men and women


Section 4 the glory that was greece4

Section 4: The Glory that was Greece

  • Aristotle felt that people should try to live balanced lives

    • These ideas have influenced people since ancient times


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Section 4: The Glory that was Greece

  • The Greeks believed in beauty, balance, and order in the universe

    • Greek art and architecture reflected those ideas


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Section 4: The Glory that was Greece

  • Greek paintings and statues were lifelike but also idealistic, meaning that they showed individuals in their most perfect form


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Section 4: The Glory that was Greece

  • The most famous Greek building was the Parthenon

    • Architects today still use ancient Greek ideas in their buildings


Section 4 the glory that was greece8

Section 4: The Glory that was Greece

  • Greek literature began with the epics of Homer

  • Greek poets wrote about joy and sorrow


Section 4 the glory that was greece9

Section 4: The Glory that was Greece

  • Plays had their roots in religious festivals

    • Actors performed outdoors with few props and little scenery

      • The characters wore masks that showed that the story was sad or happy


Section 4 the glory that was greece10

Section 4: The Glory that was Greece

  • Aeschylus, Sophicles, and Euripides wrote tragedies, or plays that told the story of human conflict

    • Others created comedies

  • The Greeks were also concerned about accurate history


Section 4 the glory that was greece11

Section 4: The Glory that was Greece


Section 5 alexander the hellenistic age

Section 5: Alexander & the Hellenistic Age

  • Summary:

    • Alexander the Great created a large empire and spread Greek culture throughout the region


Section 5 alexander the hellenistic age1

Section 5: Alexander & the Hellenistic Age

  • Macedonia was a mountain kingdom in the north of Greece

    • In 338 B. C., King Philip of Macedonia dominated all city-states to the south

      • His son, Alexander the Great, conquered the Persian empire and parts of India


Section 5 alexander the hellenistic age2

Section 5: Alexander & the Hellenistic Age

  • Alexander spread Greek culture to many parts of the world

    • The conquered peoples learned Greek ways

      • The Greeks also learned the ways of the people they conquered

        • A new Hellenistic culture arose


Section 5 alexander the hellenistic age3

Section 5: Alexander & the Hellenistic Age

  • Hellenistic culture blended parts of Greek, Persian, Egyptian, and Indian life


Section 5 alexander the hellenistic age4

Section 5: Alexander & the Hellenistic Age

  • Alexander’s empire fell apart soon after his death

    • However, Greek culture had a lasting impact on the regions it had ruled


Section 5 alexander the hellenistic age5

Section 5: Alexander & the Hellenistic Age

  • The city of Alexandria, Egypt, was at the heart of Hellenistic civilization

    • Its location made it a major marketplace of the empire

      • People from many nations met there


Section 5 alexander the hellenistic age6

Section 5: Alexander & the Hellenistic Age

  • Alexandria was also a center of learning, with a museum, libraries, and a zoo

    • Its 440-foot-tall lighthouse was one of the wonders of the world


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Section 5: Alexander & the Hellenistic Age

  • Hellenistic thinkers made great advances in the sciences and in mathematics

    • Pythagoras developed a formula designed to measure the sides of a right triangle


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Section 5: Alexander & the Hellenistic Age

  • The astronomer Aristarchus discovered that the Earth moved around the sun

  • Archimedes explored the physical principles of the lever and the pulley


Section 5 alexander the hellenistic age9

Section 5: Alexander & the Hellenistic Age

Persian Culture

Greek Culture

Hellenistic Civilization

Egyptian Culture

Indian Culture


Appendix

Appendix


Appendix1

Appendix


Appendix2

Appendix


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