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Polymer Parameters. Chemical structure Chemical composition and distribution Sequence length and distribution Molecular weight and distribution Chain isomerism Morphology Topology Additives Cost. Hierarchical Fiber Morphology. “skin”. “core”. macrofibril (~1 µ m diameter).

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polymer parameters
Polymer Parameters
  • Chemical structure
    • Chemical composition and distribution
    • Sequence length and distribution
  • Molecular weight and distribution
  • Chain isomerism
  • Morphology
  • Topology
  • Additives
  • Cost
hierarchical fiber morphology
Hierarchical Fiber Morphology

“skin”

“core”

macrofibril (~1 µm diameter)

microfibril (50 nm)

folded chain crystal habit
Folded Chain Crystal Habit

polymer melt

crystallization

fiber drawing
Fiber Drawing

semicrystalline

lamellae

microfibril

mechanical properties
Mechanical Properties

microfibril

amorphous

6 GPa

320 GPa

crystalline

crystal isotropic liquid
Crystal & Isotropic Liquid

Long-range order

- orientational

- translational

nematic lc
Nematic LC

Long-range order

- orientational

liquid crystalline polymers lcps
Liquid Crystalline Polymers (LCPs)
  • 1970’s: lyotropic LCPs (Kevlar)

- ultra-high strength fibers

  • 1980’s: thermotropic Polyesters

- stronger, low CTE, low viscosity,

ultra high strength polymers
Ultra-high Strength Polymers

react diamines with diacids

Poly(p-benzamide)s

1967 Stephanie Kwolek & Paul Morgan (DuPont)

origin of strength
Origin of Strength?

“skin”

“core”

macrofibril (~1 mm diameter)

extended-chain

crystal habit

microfibril (50 nm)

liquid crystalline polymers lcps26
Liquid Crystalline Polymers (LCPs)
  • 1970’s: lyotropic LCPs (Kevlar)

- ultra-high strength fibers

  • 1980’s: thermotropic Polyesters

- stronger, low CTE, low viscosity,

Key: Inexpensive monomers.

liquid crystalline polymers lcps27
Liquid Crystalline Polymers (LCPs)
  • Some introductory literature
  • E. T. Samulski “The Mesomorphic State”, Chapter 5 in Physical Properties of Polymers, 3rd Edt, Cambridge University Press (2004)
  • D. Acierno and A. A. Collyer, Rheology and Processing of Liquid Crystal Polymers, Chapman & Hall (1996)
  • N. A. Plate, Editor. Liquid Crystalline Polymers, Plenum Press, NY (1993).
  • A. A. Collyer, Edt. Liquid Crystal Polymers: From Structures to Applications, Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, London (1992).
  • A. M. Donald and A. H. Windle, Liquid Crystalline Polymers, Cambridge University Press (1991)
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