Endorsers and Message Appeals in Advertising

Endorsers and Message Appeals in Advertising PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Endorsers. Two kinds of endorsers:1.2.. Celebrity Endorsers. . Advertisers are willing to pay huge salaries to celebrities who are liked and respected by target audiences and who will favorably influence consumers' attitudes and behavior toward the endorsed products. 2. Celebrity Endorsers. . What are some downsides to using celebrities?.

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Endorsers and Message Appeals in Advertising

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1. Endorsers and Message Appeals in Advertising

2. Endorsers Two kinds of endorsers: 1. 2.

3. Celebrity Endorsers Advertisers are willing to pay huge salaries to celebrities who are liked and respected by target audiences and who will favorably influence consumers’ attitudes and behavior toward the endorsed products

4. Celebrity Endorsers What are some downsides to using celebrities?

5. Endorser Attributes: TEARS Model T E A R S

6. The Importance of Matchup Effective Endorser? Meaningful relationship, or matchup, between the celebrity, the audience, and the product or brand

7. How Celebrities Are Selected Celebrity/audience match-up Celebrity/brand match-up Credibility Attractiveness Cost considerations

8. How Celebrities Are Selected Working ease/difficulty: The “hassle factor” (prima donna?) Saturation Trouble

9. How Celebrities Are Selected Performance Q-Ratings Q-Rating(quotient) =popularity/familiarity

10. When Will Celebrities be Effective? Low involvement (ELM) Celebrities as peripheral cues What about Socially Symbolic products/situations?

11. When Will Celebrities be Effective? Celebrity may be just a specific case of attractive endorsers in general May serve as central information when product or situation has high symbolic significance (matchup) Even under high involvement (ELM)

12. When Will Endorser Attractiveness Matter? When situation has high symbolic significance: Attractive endorsers lead to more positive brand attitudes even under high involvement Accompanied by elaborated thinking about endorsers (Shavitt, Swan, Lowrey & Wänke, 1994)

13. Which Endorser Qualities are Best? Is it a matter of taste? (Similar endorsers may be best) Is it a factual matter, not taste? (Expert endorsers may be best) Is it symbolic or related to attractiveness? (Attractive endorsers may be best)

14. Which Endorser Qualities are Best? “I’m not a doctor, but I play one on TV…”

15. The Use of Sex Appeals in Advertising Initial attentional lure (“stopping power” of sex appeals)

16. The Use of Sex Appeals: Three Roles Initial attentional lure Can enhance recall of message points Can evoke emotional responses

17. Sex Appeals Inappropriate use of sex appeals

18. A Downside of Sex Appeals Interference with processing of message arguments and reduction in message comprehension

19. The 8 Stages of Consumer Information Processing

20. Subliminal Messages and Symbolic Embeds Subliminal Refers to the presentation of stimuli at a rate or level that is below the conscious threshold of awareness

21. Subliminal Messages and Symbolic Embeds Subliminal Advertising How did our belief in subliminal advertising get started?

22. Subliminal Messages and Symbolic Embeds Subliminal Advertising 75% of Americans are aware of this concept, believe its use is common, and believe it is highly effective.

23. Subliminal Messages and Symbolic Embeds Three types of “Subliminal Advertising” Visual stimuli (rapidly presented) Accelerated speech (auditory message) Embedding of hidden symbols

24. Subliminal Messages and symbolic Embeds Example of using embedding in advertising

25. Subliminal Messages Three types of “Subliminal Advertising” Visual stimuli (rapidly presented) Accelerated speech (auditory message) Embedding of hidden symbols

26. Subliminal Messages Visual stimuli, very rapidly presented (e.g., 4-20 ms.) can change the way we interpret subsequent info and even change our emotional responses to it

27. Subliminal Messages Mere exposure: Subliminal, repeated presentation of unfamiliar stimuli (1-4 ms!) lead to greater liking, feeling of familiarity (Kunst-Wilson & Zajonc, 1980; Bornstein et al., 1987)

28. Subliminal Messages Positive-affect arousing photos led to more positive impressions of a subsequent picture of a woman than did negative-affect arousing photos. Neg/Pos photos (9-13 ms.) (Krosnick, et al., 1992)

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