marine biology
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Marine Biology

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 62

Marine Biology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 125 Views
  • Uploaded on

Marine Biology. Study of living organisms in the ocean LIFE = ? Ability to capture, store, and transmit energy Ability to reproduce Ability to adapt to their environment NASA: A self-sustained chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution. Evolution.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Marine Biology' - chogan


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
marine biology
Marine Biology
  • Study of living organisms in the ocean
  • LIFE = ?
    • Ability to capture, store, and transmit energy
    • Ability to reproduce
    • Ability to adapt to their environment
    • NASA: A self-sustained chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution
evolution
Evolution
  • Explains the unity and diversity of life
  • Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace
  • Definition?
    • Change
  • Mechanism = natural selection
    • reproduction, mutation/variation, selection
slide4

Likely between 6-12 million species total

  • Likely about 1 million marine species
  • 2000 new marine species discovered each year
slide5

Land is more variable- leads to more species

  • Oceans more stable
  • Ex: temperature
classifying marine organisms
Classifying marine organisms
  • Pelagic (in water)
    • Plankton (drifters)
    • Nekton (swimmers)
  • Benthic (along the bottom)
slide9

Living in the Ocean:

Advantage= Water everywhere

  • makes up large % of living organisms
  • supportive
slide10

Living in the Ocean:

Disadvantage= Hard to move

  • Streamlining in larger organisms
slide11

Living in the Ocean:

Advantage= Hard to move

  • Appendages to slow sinking in plankton
slide12

Common Problem:

Surface Area to Volume

Ratios

primary producers
Primary Producers
  • aka autotrophs
  • Organisms that can capture solar energy and convert it to chemical energy by building organic compounds
  • Photosynthesis
primary producers1
Primary Producers
  • Others use chemosynthesis
    • Much less common
    • Use the oxidation of inorganic compounds as energy source,
    • ex: bacteria use hydrogen sulfide at hydrothermal vents
cellular respiration
Cellular Respiration
  • Opposite of photosynthesis
  • Breakdown of food
  • All organisms
consumers
Consumers
  • aka heterotrophs
  • Must consume (eat) other organisms
consumers1
Consumers
  • Primary consumers
    • Eat producers
  • Secondary Consumers
    • Eat primary consumers
  • These all are Trophic Levels
food webs
Food webs
  • Complex representation of who eats who
primary productivity
Primary Productivity
  • Refers to how active the producers are
  • grams of Carbon bound into organic material per square meter per year (gC/m2/y)
ocean s primary producers
Ocean’s Primary Producers
  • Algae – in Kingdom Protista
    • Have chlorophyll but no vessels to conduct fluids
    • Unicellular = phytoplankton – pelagic
    • Multicellular = seaweed – benthic
  • Plants
    • Angiosperms = flowering plants
the pelagic zone
The Pelagic Zone
  • Pelagic organisms are suspended in the water
    • Plankton = drifters
      • Phytoplankton= unicellular photosynthetic algae
      • Zooplankton = “animal” plankton
    • Nekton = swimmers
phytoplankton
Phytoplankton
  • 95% of ocean’s primary productivity
  • Mostly Single-celled organisms
  • Diatoms & Dinoflagellates
diatoms
Diatoms
  • Dominant (>5600 species)
  • Silica shell – two valves
  • Produce large portion of O2 in ocean and atmosphere
dinoflagellates
Dinoflagellates
  • Mostly autotrophs
  • Most are free living (except zooxanthellae)
  • Two whip-like flagella
  • “Red tides” or HABs (Harmful Algal Blooms)
phytoplankton distribution
Phytoplankton Distribution
  • Depends on:
    • light availability
    • nutrient concentration
  • Varies with:
    • Depth, Proximity to land, Location on the earth
phytoplankton distribution1
Phytoplankton Distribution
  • Compensation Depth
    • Where rate of photosynthesis = rate of respiration
    • Below this phytoplankton will die
phytoplankton distribution2
Phytoplankton Distribution
  • Higher near coast
    • Runoff
    • upwelling
phytoplankton distribution3
Phytoplankton Distribution

Varies across the globe – How?

phytoplankton distribution4
Phytoplankton Distribution
  • Tropics
    • Low
    • Nutrients trapped below thermocline
phytoplankton distribution5
Phytoplankton Distribution
  • Poles
    • Mostly Low (except for summer peak)
    • Insufficient light
phytoplankton distribution6
Phytoplankton Distribution
  • Temperate Regions
    • Highest overall
    • sufficient light & nutrients
    • Spring Peak
      • Increasing sunlight
    • Fall Peak
      • Increasing mixing of nutrients
zooplankton
Zooplankton
  • Animal plankton – many different types
  • Heterotrophic – primary consumers
  • Based on the phytoplankon abundance graph…how would you expect zooplankton abundance to vary?
zooplankton1
Zooplankton
  • Major types –
    • Radiolarians
    • Foraminifers
    • Copepods
    • Krill
zooplankton2
Zooplankton
  • Holoplankton
    • Spend their entire life in plankton
  • Major types –
    • Radiolarians
    • Foraminifers
    • Copepods
    • Krill
    • Jellyfish (cnidarians) and comb jellies (ctenophores)
slide53

Figure 14.3: Radiolarians

Single-celled;

Hard shell made of silica

slide54

Figure 14.4: Foraminifers

Single-celled; shell made from calcium carbonate

slide55

Copepods

Small crustaceans (<1 mm)

Very abundant

zooplankton3
Zooplankton
  • Meroplankton
    • Only found in plankton for part of their life cycle
    • Larvae of benthic adults & fish
ad