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Marine Biology. Study of living organisms in the ocean LIFE = ? Ability to capture, store, and transmit energy Ability to reproduce Ability to adapt to their environment NASA: A self-sustained chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution. Evolution.

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Marine biology
Marine Biology

  • Study of living organisms in the ocean

  • LIFE = ?

    • Ability to capture, store, and transmit energy

    • Ability to reproduce

    • Ability to adapt to their environment

    • NASA: A self-sustained chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution


Evolution
Evolution

  • Explains the unity and diversity of life

  • Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace

  • Definition?

    • Change

  • Mechanism = natural selection

    • reproduction, mutation/variation, selection





Classifying marine organisms
Classifying marine organisms

  • Pelagic (in water)

    • Plankton (drifters)

    • Nekton (swimmers)

  • Benthic (along the bottom)




Living in the Ocean:

Advantage= Water everywhere

  • makes up large % of living organisms

  • supportive


Living in the Ocean:

Disadvantage= Hard to move

  • Streamlining in larger organisms


Living in the Ocean:

Advantage= Hard to move

  • Appendages to slow sinking in plankton


Common Problem:

Surface Area to Volume

Ratios


Primary producers
Primary Producers

  • aka autotrophs

  • Organisms that can capture solar energy and convert it to chemical energy by building organic compounds

  • Photosynthesis



Primary producers1
Primary Producers

  • Others use chemosynthesis

    • Much less common

    • Use the oxidation of inorganic compounds as energy source,

    • ex: bacteria use hydrogen sulfide at hydrothermal vents


Cellular respiration
Cellular Respiration

  • Opposite of photosynthesis

  • Breakdown of food

  • All organisms



Consumers
Consumers

  • aka heterotrophs

  • Must consume (eat) other organisms


Consumers1
Consumers

  • Primary consumers

    • Eat producers

  • Secondary Consumers

    • Eat primary consumers

  • These all are Trophic Levels


Food webs
Food webs

  • Complex representation of who eats who


Primary productivity
Primary Productivity

  • Refers to how active the producers are

  • grams of Carbon bound into organic material per square meter per year (gC/m2/y)





Ocean s primary producers
Ocean’s Primary Producers level

  • Algae – in Kingdom Protista

    • Have chlorophyll but no vessels to conduct fluids

    • Unicellular = phytoplankton – pelagic

    • Multicellular = seaweed – benthic

  • Plants

    • Angiosperms = flowering plants


The pelagic zone
The Pelagic Zone level

  • Pelagic organisms are suspended in the water

    • Plankton = drifters

      • Phytoplankton= unicellular photosynthetic algae

      • Zooplankton = “animal” plankton

    • Nekton = swimmers


Phytoplankton
Phytoplankton level

  • 95% of ocean’s primary productivity

  • Mostly Single-celled organisms

  • Diatoms & Dinoflagellates


Diatoms
Diatoms level

  • Dominant (>5600 species)

  • Silica shell – two valves

  • Produce large portion of O2 in ocean and atmosphere


Dinoflagellates
Dinoflagellates level

  • Mostly autotrophs

  • Most are free living (except zooxanthellae)

  • Two whip-like flagella

  • “Red tides” or HABs (Harmful Algal Blooms)


Phytoplankton distribution
Phytoplankton Distribution level

  • Depends on:

    • light availability

    • nutrient concentration

  • Varies with:

    • Depth, Proximity to land, Location on the earth


Phytoplankton distribution1
Phytoplankton Distribution level

  • Compensation Depth

    • Where rate of photosynthesis = rate of respiration

    • Below this phytoplankton will die


Phytoplankton distribution2
Phytoplankton Distribution level

  • Higher near coast

    • Runoff

    • upwelling



Phytoplankton distribution3
Phytoplankton Distribution level

Varies across the globe – How?


Phytoplankton distribution4
Phytoplankton Distribution level

  • Tropics

    • Low

    • Nutrients trapped below thermocline


Phytoplankton distribution5
Phytoplankton Distribution level

  • Poles

    • Mostly Low (except for summer peak)

    • Insufficient light


Phytoplankton distribution6
Phytoplankton Distribution level

  • Temperate Regions

    • Highest overall

    • sufficient light & nutrients

    • Spring Peak

      • Increasing sunlight

    • Fall Peak

      • Increasing mixing of nutrients


Zooplankton
Zooplankton level

  • Animal plankton – many different types

  • Heterotrophic – primary consumers

  • Based on the phytoplankon abundance graph…how would you expect zooplankton abundance to vary?




Zooplankton1
Zooplankton level

  • Major types –

    • Radiolarians

    • Foraminifers

    • Copepods

    • Krill


Zooplankton2
Zooplankton level

  • Holoplankton

    • Spend their entire life in plankton

  • Major types –

    • Radiolarians

    • Foraminifers

    • Copepods

    • Krill

    • Jellyfish (cnidarians) and comb jellies (ctenophores)


Figure 14.3: Radiolarians level

Single-celled;

Hard shell made of silica


Figure 14.4: Foraminifers level

Single-celled; shell made from calcium carbonate


Copepods level

Small crustaceans (<1 mm)

Very abundant





Zooplankton3
Zooplankton level

  • Meroplankton

    • Only found in plankton for part of their life cycle

    • Larvae of benthic adults & fish



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