Marine biology
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Marine Biology. Study of living organisms in the ocean LIFE = ? Ability to capture, store, and transmit energy Ability to reproduce Ability to adapt to their environment NASA: A self-sustained chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution. Evolution.

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Marine Biology

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Marine biology

Marine Biology

  • Study of living organisms in the ocean

  • LIFE = ?

    • Ability to capture, store, and transmit energy

    • Ability to reproduce

    • Ability to adapt to their environment

    • NASA: A self-sustained chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution


Evolution

Evolution

  • Explains the unity and diversity of life

  • Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace

  • Definition?

    • Change

  • Mechanism = natural selection

    • reproduction, mutation/variation, selection


Marine biology

Diversity of Life


Marine biology

  • Likely between 6-12 million species total

  • Likely about 1 million marine species

  • 2000 new marine species discovered each year


Marine biology

  • Land is more variable- leads to more species

  • Oceans more stable

  • Ex: temperature


Classifying marine organisms

Classifying marine organisms

  • Pelagic (in water)

    • Plankton (drifters)

    • Nekton (swimmers)

  • Benthic (along the bottom)


Life cycle of a squid

Life Cycle of a Squid


Marine biology

Divisions of the Marine Environment


Marine biology

Living in the Ocean:

Advantage= Water everywhere

  • makes up large % of living organisms

  • supportive


Marine biology

Living in the Ocean:

Disadvantage= Hard to move

  • Streamlining in larger organisms


Marine biology

Living in the Ocean:

Advantage= Hard to move

  • Appendages to slow sinking in plankton


Marine biology

Common Problem:

Surface Area to Volume

Ratios


Primary producers

Primary Producers

  • aka autotrophs

  • Organisms that can capture solar energy and convert it to chemical energy by building organic compounds

  • Photosynthesis


Marine biology

Fig. 12-2, p. 238


Primary producers1

Primary Producers

  • Others use chemosynthesis

    • Much less common

    • Use the oxidation of inorganic compounds as energy source,

    • ex: bacteria use hydrogen sulfide at hydrothermal vents


Cellular respiration

Cellular Respiration

  • Opposite of photosynthesis

  • Breakdown of food

  • All organisms


Marine biology

Figure 13.1


Consumers

Consumers

  • aka heterotrophs

  • Must consume (eat) other organisms


Consumers1

Consumers

  • Primary consumers

    • Eat producers

  • Secondary Consumers

    • Eat primary consumers

  • These all are Trophic Levels


Food webs

Food webs

  • Complex representation of who eats who


Primary productivity

Primary Productivity

  • Refers to how active the producers are

  • grams of Carbon bound into organic material per square meter per year (gC/m2/y)


Marine biology

Figure 13.18


Marine biology

Only 10% of “food” gets transferred to the next trophic level


Marine biology

Figure 13.19


Ocean s primary producers

Ocean’s Primary Producers

  • Algae – in Kingdom Protista

    • Have chlorophyll but no vessels to conduct fluids

    • Unicellular = phytoplankton – pelagic

    • Multicellular = seaweed – benthic

  • Plants

    • Angiosperms = flowering plants


The pelagic zone

The Pelagic Zone

  • Pelagic organisms are suspended in the water

    • Plankton = drifters

      • Phytoplankton= unicellular photosynthetic algae

      • Zooplankton = “animal” plankton

    • Nekton = swimmers


Phytoplankton

Phytoplankton

  • 95% of ocean’s primary productivity

  • Mostly Single-celled organisms

  • Diatoms & Dinoflagellates


Diatoms

Diatoms

  • Dominant (>5600 species)

  • Silica shell – two valves

  • Produce large portion of O2 in ocean and atmosphere


Dinoflagellates

Dinoflagellates

  • Mostly autotrophs

  • Most are free living (except zooxanthellae)

  • Two whip-like flagella

  • “Red tides” or HABs (Harmful Algal Blooms)


Phytoplankton distribution

Phytoplankton Distribution

  • Depends on:

    • light availability

    • nutrient concentration

  • Varies with:

    • Depth, Proximity to land, Location on the earth


Phytoplankton distribution1

Phytoplankton Distribution

  • Compensation Depth

    • Where rate of photosynthesis = rate of respiration

    • Below this phytoplankton will die


Phytoplankton distribution2

Phytoplankton Distribution

  • Higher near coast

    • Runoff

    • upwelling


Marine biology

Figure 13.6


Phytoplankton distribution3

Phytoplankton Distribution

Varies across the globe – How?


Phytoplankton distribution4

Phytoplankton Distribution

  • Tropics

    • Low

    • Nutrients trapped below thermocline


Phytoplankton distribution5

Phytoplankton Distribution

  • Poles

    • Mostly Low (except for summer peak)

    • Insufficient light


Phytoplankton distribution6

Phytoplankton Distribution

  • Temperate Regions

    • Highest overall

    • sufficient light & nutrients

    • Spring Peak

      • Increasing sunlight

    • Fall Peak

      • Increasing mixing of nutrients


Zooplankton

Zooplankton

  • Animal plankton – many different types

  • Heterotrophic – primary consumers

  • Based on the phytoplankon abundance graph…how would you expect zooplankton abundance to vary?


Marine biology

Figure 13.11a: Arctic Ecosystem


Marine biology

Figure 13.13a: Temperate Ecosystem


Zooplankton1

Zooplankton

  • Major types –

    • Radiolarians

    • Foraminifers

    • Copepods

    • Krill


Zooplankton2

Zooplankton

  • Holoplankton

    • Spend their entire life in plankton

  • Major types –

    • Radiolarians

    • Foraminifers

    • Copepods

    • Krill

    • Jellyfish (cnidarians) and comb jellies (ctenophores)


Marine biology

Figure 14.3: Radiolarians

Single-celled;

Hard shell made of silica


Marine biology

Figure 14.4: Foraminifers

Single-celled; shell made from calcium carbonate


Marine biology

Copepods

Small crustaceans (<1 mm)

Very abundant


Marine biology

Figure 14.5: Copepod diversity


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Krill – Important in Antarctic Ecosystem

Fig. 13-9, p. 265


Marine biology

Fig. 13-10c, p. 266


Zooplankton3

Zooplankton

  • Meroplankton

    • Only found in plankton for part of their life cycle

    • Larvae of benthic adults & fish


Marine biology

Meroplankton


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