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Ancient Rome : Early Republic to Empire. Rome was established around 600 BCE According to legend, the city was founded by Romulus & Remus , twin brothers who had been found in the wilderness and raised by a she-wolf. The Geography of Rome.

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Ancient Rome : Early Republic to Empire

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Ancient rome early republic to empire

Ancient Rome :

Early Republic to Empire


Ancient rome early republic to empire

  • Rome was established around 600 BCE

  • According to legend, the city was founded by Romulus & Remus, twin brothers who had been found in the wilderness and raised by a she-wolf


Ancient rome early republic to empire

The Geography of Rome


Ancient rome early republic to empire

  • Originally, Rome was dominated by Etruscan kings (rex), but eventually the Romans rebelled and

  • In 509 BCE, the Romans established a new government – republic : a form of government in which certain citizens have the right to vote to select leaders


Ancient rome early republic to empire

  • There were two social classes in Rome:

  • Patricians – aristocratic landowners who held most of the

  • power

  • Plebians – the common farmers, artisans, and merchants


Ancient rome early republic to empire

Roman Republican government:

2 Consuls

  • Elected each year to command the army

  • preside over the senate

Advise

Advise

  • elected by the plebians

  • Had veto power over laws passed by the Senate

  • Supreme governing body

  • 300 members (serve for life)

  • Control finances & state religion

Tribunes (10)

The Senate


Ancient rome early republic to empire

  • Roman Military

  • All citizens who owned land were required to serve in the army for ten years

  • Legion – military unit made up of 4800 soldiers supported by light cavalry

  • Dictator – in times crisis, one consul assumed absolute power


Ancient rome early republic to empire

  • The Punic Wars

  • In 264 BCE, Rome went to war

  • with Carthage (called the Punic Wars)

    • 1st Punic War 264 – 241 BCE Carthage defeated

    • 2nd Punic War 218 -202 BCE Carthage defeated

      • Hannibal – Carthagian general, marched elephants

      • across the Alps

      • Scipio – Roman general who attacked Carthage

    • 3rd Punic War 149 – 146 BCE ended with the

    • destruction of Carthage


Ancient rome early republic to empire

  • After the Punic Wars, Rome entered into a period of civil wars – conflict between groups in the same country

  •  Changes in the military: soldiers now came from the landless poor and only owed allegiance to their commander (in other words, the guy paying them)


Ancient rome early republic to empire

  • From the chaos of the civil wars, three men emerged as the power in

  • Rome

  • Julius Caesar

    • 60 BCE – joined forces with Marcus Crassus & Gnaius Pompey

    • to create the 1st Triumvirate

    • (a group of three rulers)

    • 59 BCE – was elected to consul

    • 58 – 50 BCE – conquered Gaul – made him popular with soldiers & the public

      • Crassus died in battle & Pompey back in Rome begins to fear Caesar’s growing power & had the Senate order him to disband his army & Rome


Ancient rome early republic to empire

  • Caesar refused to disband his army & marched on Rome – “The die is cast”– civil war erupted between Caesar & Pompey.

  • Pompey left Rome and went East to gather his forces (but left the wealth of Rome in the Temple of Saturn (in ROME!)

  • Defeated by Caesar at the Battle of Pharsalus (48 BCE)

  • Pompey fled to  Egypt (where he was assassinated by disloyal Romans at the urging of the Pharaoh Ptolemy XIII’s advisors


Ancient rome early republic to empire

  • Caesar followed Pompey to Egypt, where he met Cleopatra

  • Egypt was in the middle of a civil war, so Caesar decided to stay settle the dispute between Ptolemy XIII (who was 10) and Cleopatra (Ptolemy’s sister and wife)

  • After putting Cleopatra back on the throne as queen,

  • Caesar stayed in Egypt

  • for many months

  • enjoying her company


Ancient rome early republic to empire

  • Caesar finally returned to Rome, where he used his powerful army and his popularity with the people of Rome to force the Senate to enact reforms in his name:

    • Senate declares Caesar dictator for life

    • Granted citizenship to the provinces

    • Expanded the Senate (replaced disloyal Senators with loyal ones)

    • Created jobs for the poor

    • Started new colonies


Ancient rome early republic to empire

  • A number of Senators feared Caesar’s power and his own sense of self-importance. When Cleopatra arrived in Rome with a little boy she claimed was Caesar’s, they decided to remove him from power the only way they could –death!!!!

  • March 15th, 44 BCE – Caesar was assassinated by a group of Senators led by Marcus Brutus and Gaius Cassius

  • (Et tu, Brute?)


Ancient rome early republic to empire

  • Rome was plunged into another civil war after Caesar’s death:

  • Marc Antony (Caesar’s 2nd in command) & Octavian

  • Vs.

  • the Senate conspirators

  • Octavian was Caesar’s grandnephew & his

  • chosen heir

  • Formed the 2nd triumvirate with Antony & Lepidus

  • Hunted down & destroyed the Senate conspirators

  • Antony and Octavian then divided the Roman territory to share – Antony would administer the East, Octavian the west, and Lepidus was sent to Africa


Ancient rome early republic to empire

  • Octavian then turned on Marc Antony, who had gone to Egypt and married Cleopatra

  • After their defeat at the hands of Octavian’s navy at the Battle of Actium (September 2, 31 BCE), Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide.


Ancient rome early republic to empire

  • Octavian-

    • Took the title “Augustus” which means the first or “exalted one”

    • Became the 1st imperator (emperor)

    • His rule began “PaxRomana” (Roman Peace), which lasted for 207 years (27 BCE – 180AD)


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