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New Chances for Nuclear Astrophysics. Interdisciplinary research improved: observations astrophysical models nuclear theory NUCLEAR DATA. On the shoulders of giants. The Presence. The Foundation. Nuclear Physics at the eve of a new era. UNDERGROUND LABS (from LUNA to DUSEL)

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new chances for nuclear astrophysics
New Chances for Nuclear Astrophysics
  • Interdisciplinary research
  • improved:
  • observations
  • astrophysical models
  • nuclear theory
  • NUCLEAR DATA
on the shoulders of giants
On the shoulders of giants

The Presence

The Foundation

nuclear physics at the eve of a new era
Nuclear Physics at the eve of a new era
  • UNDERGROUND LABS
  • (from LUNA to DUSEL)
  • RADIOACTIVE ION-BEAMS
  • (from Louvain, Isolde .... via ISAC, ORNL... towards RIKEN, FRIB, FAIR)
  • Nuclear Models
  • (from phenomenology to ab-initio)
fermionic molecular dynamics structure
Fermionic Molecular Dynamics - Structure

17Ne

20Ne

22Ne

  • Realistic effective interaction (Unitary Correlation Operator Method)
  • Microscopic description of light nuclei using nucleons as degrees of freedom
  • Consistent description of shell structure, clusters, halos
  • Connection to experiment: spectra, electromagnetic and weak transitions, densities, form factors, spectroscopic amplitudes

Gabriel Martínez Pinedo - ENNA: Theory

fermionic molecular dynamics reactions
Fermionic Molecular Dynamics - Reactions

Scattering states

3He(,)7Be

FMD

Data

Gabriel Martínez Pinedo - ENNA: Theory

radioactive ion beams claus other love
Radioactive-ion beams: Claus other Love

From Parksville, Geneve, Louvain

To

RIKEN, FRIB, FAIR

ISAC, RIKEN, FRIB, FAIR

slide7

Each heavy atom in our body was build and processed through ~100-1000 star generations since the initial Big Bang event!

We are made of star stuff

Carl Sagan

slide8

Signatures of Nucleosynthesis

solar abundance distribution

  • nucleosynthesis processes
  • nucleosynthesis history
  • of our universe

The stellar abundance distribution is a reflection of nuclear structure and nuclear stability!

simulation of supernova collapse
Simulation of Supernova Collapse
  • Electron capture on nuclei
  • Composition: increasingly neutron rich nuclei
  • Elastic neutrino scattering on nuclei

Courtesy: RIKEN

effects of nuclear electron capture during core collapse
Effects of Nuclear Electron Capture during Core Collapse

The electron capture at high densities results in lower Ye and generates neutrino wind which is necessary for driving the shock.

Hix, Messer, Mezzacappa, et al ‘03

Electron captures on nuclei dominate

two dimensional supernova simulation
Two-Dimensional Supernova Simulation
  • Plasma instabilities
  • Equation of State
  • Neutrino transport
    • Neutrino opacities
    • Dense matter correlations
    • Neutrino-nucleon reactions
  • Rotation, magnetic fields.....

Courtesy: Hans-Thomas Janka

Courtesy Hans-Thomas Janka

courtesy

explosive nucleosynthesis
Explosive Nucleosynthesis

Neutrino reactions with nucleons

determine the proton-to-neutron

ratio

  • Neutrino-Proton Process
  • (early ejecta, proton rich)
  • R-Process
  • (late ejecta, neutron rich)
the r process
The R-Process
  • Masses
  • Half lives
  • Neutron capture rates
  • Fission
  • Neutrino reactions

Courtesy: K.-L. Kratz

slide15

TRIUMF/ISAC future (2010-2018)

New proton spallation beam line on UC

(p,)/()/(p,)/(,p) reactions for novae/XRB/SNII more power for spallation e.g. 18Ne(,p), 30P(p,), 25Al(p,), 17F(p,), 11C(p,), 13N(p,),,….

AND new target stations for more target & ion source development).

Photo-fission on U-target

Neutron-rich studies: (d,p) for (n,) using EMMA/TIGRESS/SHARC, TITAN mass measurements for Sn, Q and TIGRESS structure studies of r-process nuclei, N=82 closed shell.

3 RIB in parallel

New isotopes &

more target and source

developments.

MORE experiments

slide16

RIKEN RI Beam Factory (RIBF)

Experiment facility

To be funded

In phase II

Old facility

Accelerator

RIPS

SHE (eg. Z=113)

GARIS

60~100 MeV/nucleon

~5 MeV/nucleon

RILAC

SCRIT

AVF

ZeroDegree

SAMURAI

fRC

RRC

SLOWRI

SRC

IRC

RI-ring

SHARAQ

BigRIPS

CRIB (CNS)

350-400 MeV/nucleon

New facility

  • Intense (80 kW max.) H.I. beams (up to U) of 345AMeV at SRC
  • Fast RI beams by projectile fragmentation and U-fission at BigRIPS
  • Operation since 2007
slide17

World’s First and Strongest

K2600MeV

Superconducting Ring Cyclotron

SRC

400 MeV/u Light-ion beam

345 MeV/u Uranium beam

BigRIPS

World’s Largest Acceptance

9 Tm

Superconducting RI beam Separator

~250-300 MeV/nucleon RIB

K980-MeV

Intermediate stage Ring Cyclotron (IRC)

slide18

Search for new neutron-rich isotopes using a 345 A MeV 238U beam

at the BigRIPS in-flight separator

  • I = 0.02 pnA
  • Two new isotopes : 125, 126Pd (Onishi et al, JPSJ 77 (08)083201.)
  • I=0.2 pnA
  • More than 20 new isotopes
  • including an r-process nucleus 128Pd (Onishi et al., in preparation)

BigRIPS

The first half of BigRIPS (F0-F2) :

radioactive beam productions

The second half of BigRIPS (F3-F7):

particle identification of beams

in the Br-DE-TOF method

High resolution in A/Q determination

0.04% for Z=26.

frib will constrain weak interactions in supernovae
FRIB will constrain weak interactions in supernovae

How do supernovae explode?

Electron capture and beta decay rates play important role in

Core collapse supernovae

Dynamics of collapse

Shock energetics

Thermonuclear supernovae

Nucleosynthesis

Flame propagation

2.1. Energy in stellar explosions: Weak interactions in supernovae

Need data to constrain and develop nuclear theory

NSCL measurements by R. Zegers et al.

frib capability to address r process
FRIB Capability to Address r-Process

82

Asymmetry dependenceof fission barriers

(d,p) for (n,g)

50

N=126

126

NSCL experimentsincluding 78Ni

RISACbench-mark

82

(70) Yb

Known b-decay

(69) Tm

(68) Er

28

FRIBreach

(67) Ho

FRIB reach forb-decay properties

(66) Dy

50

Masses

solar system r process abundance pattern
Solar System r-process Abundance Pattern

today

Existing facilities

FRIB+ FAIR+RIKEN

RIA

A colored dot means that the relevant nuclear data (mass, halflife, P(βn)) could be measured.

At present except in a few cases (blue) can output of models be matched to measured abundances.

The next generation exotic beam facilities will allow one to

  • constrain r-process theories using abundance data
  • extract full information about r-process (and its environment) fromobservational data
r process simulation
R-Process Simulation

Courtesy: Gabriel Martinez-Pinedo

fair chance nuclear masses
FAIR Chance: Nuclear masses
  • R-Process abundances depend on neutron separation energies
  • Different mass models predict different patterns
  • FRDM: ‚robust‘ patterns, as observed in old halo stars in Milky Way
  • ETFSI: individual patterns strongly depending on neutron-to-seed ratios
fair chance role of halflives
Competition velocity of ejected matter vs. halflives

IF halflives were known, strong constraint of matter ejection from neutron star surface!

FAIR Chance: Role of Halflives
fair chance neutron stars
FAIR Chance: Neutron Stars
  • Neutron Stars are laboratories for matter at extreme densities
  • Neutron rich nuclei
  • Equation of State for nuclear matter
  • Exotic phases?
fate of ashes on neutron star surface

Neutron star surface

Radiativecooling

Nuclearreactions

H,He

gas

thermonuclear

ashes

ocean

thermonuclear

outer

crust

Electroncapture

Innercrust

pycnonuclear

n cooling

Fate of ashes on neutron star surface
slide29

106Pd

rp-ashes

4.8 x 1011 g/cm3

106Ge

56Fe

1.8 x 1012 g/cm3

68Ca

Increase with Z1Z2

2.5 x 1011 g/cm3

72Ca

4.4 x 1012 g/cm3

56Ar

1.5 x 1012 g/cm3

34Ne

Crust processes

Ouellette, Gupta & Brown 2005

Haensel & Zdunik 1990, 2003

Beard & Wiescher 2003

Known mass

superbursts

relay of nuclear astrophysics
Relay of Nuclear Astrophysics

The Son

The Grandson

The Father

relay of nuclear astrophysics1
Relay of Nuclear Astrophysics

The Son

The Grandson

The Father

Must be the hair and the beard!!

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