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French & English Speaking Canadians. CDN History Fall 2013. Unit Introduction. Think of a time when you were the “underdog” or mistreated in a situation Identify the specific reasons as to why you were mistreated How did this situation and/or treatment make you feel?

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French english speaking canadians

French & English Speaking Canadians

CDN History

Fall 2013

Unit introduction

Unit Introduction

  • Think of a time when you were the “underdog” or mistreated in a situation

  • Identify the specific reasons as to why you were mistreated

  • How did this situation and/or treatment make you feel?

  • What actions, if any, did you take to resolve the problem?

  • Anyone want to share?

Unit introduction1

Unit Introduction


How do (or do…) your personal experiences of mistreatment relate to the experiences of French-Speaking Canadians?

Maurice duplesis union nationale

Maurice Duplesis - Union Nationale

  • Leader from 1939-1959

  • Determined to PROTECT French CDN Culture; he was traditional and pushed to preserve the French language and Catholicism

  • He often refused $ from the federal gov’t out of fear that it would threaten QB society and independence. Instead, he turned to local businesses to help develop QB

Problems for french speaking canadians in the 70s 1 3

Problems for French-Speaking Canadians in the 70s (1/3)

  • The French-speaking CDNs are workers and the English-speaking CDNs are the bosses = French-speaking CDNs receive fewer promotions than English-speaking CDNs

  • French-speaking CDNs make up 28% of Canada’s population. The francophones are the largest minority group in Canada

  • Most companies owned by anglophones who forced employees to speak English

Problems for french speaking canadians in the 70s 2 3

Problems for French-Speaking Canadians in the 70s (2/3)

  • The unemployment rate is higher in Quebec than in the rest of Canada.

    In 1971, the unemployment rate is QB is 8.2% versus the rest of Canada with 5.8%

  • Infant mortality rates are 50% higher in Quebec than in the rest of Canada, due to poor health care.

  • Decisions about Quebec’s economy are made by anglophones who own most companies

  • The average income is lower in QB than the rest of Canada. In 1970, $2794 (QB); $3091 (Canada)

Problems for french speaking canadians in the 70s 3 3

Problems for French-Speaking Canadians in the 70s (3/3)

  • French-Speaking CDNs are paid less than English-Speaking CDNs for doing the SAME job and level of education

  • 90% of the people immigrating to QB are English-Speaking

  • Only 18% of federal government jobs are held by French-speaking CDNs. They should have 28% of the jobs because they make up 28% of the CDN population. If French-Speaking CDNs held 28% of federal government jobs, there would be less unemployment in QB

Issues for french speaking canadians in the 70s

Issues for French-Speaking Canadians in the 70s


..So, pretend you were a francophone living in Quebec, how would you feel and/or react?

Jean lesage quiet revolution

Jean Lesage – Quiet Revolution

  • 1960, the QB Liberals won a narrow victory over the Union National in provincial elections

  • They began a rapid, but non-violent process of reform aka QUIET REVOLUTION

  • Brought significant changes: modernized the education system, and encouraged QBers to maintain their culture

  • Demanded special status for QB. The Federal gov’t agreed to allow QB to control its own pension, student-loans, and medical insurance plans

  • Strong element of French-Canadian nationalism; but not separatists

Lesage s actions

Lesage’s Actions

  • He immediately takes over the hydro-electric company so QB will have more say in its economic future

  • Policy of “Maitres chez nous” – masters of our own house – he wants greater control for French-Speaking CDNs over affairs in QB (specifically businesses)

  • Replace programs previously run by the church and modernize schools –create a public system that focuses on science and technology


  • Modernization of QB: business, education, and economy

  • Outpouring of FR culture: art, music, books, plays, and film

Homework language laws

Homework: Language Laws

Refer to pages 248-250 in your textbook

  • What does the Bi and Bi Commission believe is the basis for the Fr-Eng crisis?

  • In your own words, list 3 main recommendations of the Bi and Bi commission

  • Take point form notes on: Official Languages Act, Bill 22, Bill 101, Legal challenges to Bill 101

  • Read the quotations in the margins on pages 249-250. Is Bilingualism a reality in Canada? Can Canada achieve/maintain this dream?

  • Prepare an answer to question 31 on page 250. Be ready to discuss it tomorrow in class. “Do you think preserving the French language justifies restricting individual rights?”

Homework searching for an identity

Homework: Searching for an Identity

Read pages 248-250. Complete an ID/SIG for the following terms:

  • New Flag

  • Official Languages Act

  • Bi and Bi Commission

    Read pages 248-250. Complete an ID/SIG for the following terms:

  • Bill 22

  • Bill 101

French english speaking canadians


  • A group of radicals who wanted to bring even greater change to QB – even separation

  • They carried out terrorist bombings and raids – mostly where English-speaking CDNs lived or owned businesses

    Class Q 1: What would it take for Ontarians to separate from the rest of Canada?

    Class Q 2: Define terrorism

October crisis 1970 1 2

October Crisis: 1970 (1/2)

  • FLQ members kidnapped British Trade Commissioner, James Cross from his home in MTL; 4 days later they kidnapped QB Cabinet Minister, Pierre Laporte

  • They demanded $500,000 in ransom, transportation to Cuba, and release of FLQ members in jail

  • They wanted an FLQ MANIFESTO (declaration of beliefs) to be read on national television networks

October crisis 1970 2 2

October Crisis: 1970 (2/2)

  • Initially QBkers had some sympathy for the FLQ

  • But when Pierre Laporte’s body was found in the trunk of a car, the mood shifted

  • People were horrified by the violent murder

  • After consultation with PM Pierre Trudeau, QB’s Premier, Robert Bourassa, agreed to give into the FLQ demands in return for James Cross

The manifesto page 48 49

The Manifesto:page 48-49

  • Let’s read the manifesto as a class and complete the corresponding questions as a group

French english speaking canadians


What measures would you take if you were Prime Minister at this time?

War measures act 1 2

War Measures Act (1/2)

  • Trudeau ordered the military to help in the search for Cross

  • He also brought the War Measures Act into force – the act took away the civil rights of CDNs and gave the military and police sweeping powers of arrest.

  • It was the only time the ACT was used during peacetime

War measures act 2 2

War Measures Act (2/2)

  • Trudeau argues the Act was justified because the FLQ planned to overthrow the government

  • James Cross was found 4 months later and alive – in a house in MTL

  • The FLQ members that were involved, were given safe passage to Cuba in exchange for Cross

  • 23 others were brought to trial for terrorism during the OCTOBER CRISIS

French english speaking canadians

The Aftermath

Rise of modern independence movement 1 3

Rise of Modern Independence Movement (1/3)

  • After 1970, Rene Levesque, future leader of the Parti Quebecois, said:

    “If they really thought they had a cause, they killed it along with Pierre Laporte. By shaming themselves, they have given a bad name to the entire separatist movement. One can only hope that they live long enough to see that they stand for nothing and represent no one who matters. That would be the worst punishment they could have.”

Rise of modern independence movement 2 3

Rise of Modern Independence Movement (2/3)

  • 1968, a number of small separatist groups joined to form the PQ

  • PQ grew from a fringe party to form government in 8 years (…around 1976)

  • The PQ were a force within Quebec

Rise of modern independence movement 3 3

Rise of Modern Independence Movement (3/3)

Why did the PQ come to Power?

  • Some issues from the Quiet Revolution were unresolved

  • Bourassa’s Liberal gov’t turned over a great deal of QB’s forests to American companies

  • 1973 onward, strikes rocketed (police, hydro workers, teachers, hospital employees etc)

  • Taxes and unemployment rates increased

  • Scandals rocked the Liberal party. The PQ’s election had more to do with economic reasons rather than the desire for independence.

  • QBkers embraced the PQ slogan “L’autre facon de gouvener” [the other way of governing]

Trudeau and french cdns 1 2

Trudeau and French CDNs (1/2)

  • In an effort to satisfy the French-Speaking CDNs and AVOID separation, PM Trudeau passed the OFFICIAL LANGUAGES ACT (gave all CDNs the legal right to deal with the federal government and courts in both French and English)

  • Trudeau argued for a JUST SOCIETY and promoted the idea of equality for all Canadians

  • He adopted a policy of openness and MULTICULTURALISM (though not enforceable)

  • Trudeau believed in protecting French culture, but also encouraged other culture in Canada



  • Despite Trudeau’s support of a JUST SOCIETY and willingness to help protect French culture, his policy of Bilingualism did not settle growing separatist feelings

    CLASS Q: In your view, is French Canada justified in its desire to seek special status or separation?

French english speaking canadians

1980 Referendum

Homework 1980 referendum

Homework: 1980 Referendum

Read pages 282-283 in your textbook. Answer the following:

  • Why propose sovereignty-association?

  • Outline the theory of sovereignty-association in point form

  • Why did Levesque choose to have a referendum in 1980?

  • What does Trudeau promise if the “NO” vote wins?

  • Does the referendum question suggest promises it couldn’t deliver?

  • Answer number 1 on page 283

1980 referendum 1 2

1980 Referendum (1/2)

“The Government has made public its proposal to negotiate a new agreement with the rest of Canada based on the equality of nations…in other words sovereignty --, and at the same time, to maintain with Canada an economic association…[O]n these terms, do you agree to give the Government of Quebec the mandate to negotiate the proposed agreement between Quebec and Canada?”

  • Your initial response should be = MEH?

The 1980 referendum 2 2

The 1980 Referendum (2/2)

  • The issue of special status, or even separation did not end with the October Crisis

  • In 1980 – a Referendum was held (Rene Levesque); QBkers were asked if they would like to be sovereign or independent state

  • 60% of Quebeckers voted NO at this time

  • However, in 1995 another referendum was held where only 51% voted NO

French english speaking canadians

Revised Constitution

Homework patriation of the constitution

Homework: Patriation of the Constitution

Read pages 285-287, answer the following:

  • Why did the 1971 deal collapse?

  • What is Trudeau’s vision for Canada?

  • What did Trudeau promise to do in 1980?

  • What was the Supreme Court’s ruling on Trudeau’s proposal?

  • Why was including the Charter so contentious?

  • Why is Levesque left out of the final meeting?

  • Why are Canada’s First Nations peoples unsatisfied with the constitution?

  • What is the impact of “bringing home” the constitution?

Bringing home the constitution 1 3

Bringing Home the Constitution (1/3)

  • After the NO vote in the QB referendum, Trudeau kept his promise for constitutional reform… QB may want to stay in Canada, if a new constitution was developed*

  • Trudeau held a conference for provincial Premiers, but they could not agree on how to revise the constitution.

  • November 1981, at the last minute, a deal was hammered out BUT QB was left out of the final meeting*

Bringing home the constitution 2 3

Bringing Home the Constitution (2/3)

  • All of the provinces except QB agreed to and signed the new constitution.

  • Levesque complained that the deal showed that “Quebec was alone”.

  • With the signing of the CONSTITUTION ACT of 1982, Canada’s status as a fully independent country was recognized******

Bringing home the constitution 3 3

Bringing Home the Constitution (3/3)

The three main points of the new constitution:

  • Power to change the constitution is brought home [and away] from Britain

  • Changes to the constitution can occur if the federal gov’t and 7 provinces agreed

  • The Charter of Rights and Freedoms was added to the constitution

French english speaking canadians


Qb separation at what cost 1 2

QB Separation: At what cost?(1/2)

Impact on Canada

  • Loss of 15.5% of our land mass

  • Loss of up to 25% of our popl’n

  • Loss of 23% of our GDP

  • Loss of 15% of our fresh water supply

  • Loss of 14% of our mineral production capabilities

  • Atlantic Canada would be physically severed from the rest of Canada

  • Defence of Canada will be problematic

  • May lead to other provinces that want to separate

  • Francophones outside of QB left w/o a powerful ally

  • CDN’s may be even more susceptible to Americanization w/o Fr-CDN influences

Qb separation at what cost 2 2

QB Separation: At what cost?(2/2)

Impacts on QB

  • May be forced to renegotiate international trade deals

  • No longer receive Federal grants/assistance

  • Assume complete financial responsibility

  • Anglophone popl’n and big business may leave for Eng-Canada

  • Foreign and domestic investment may drop

  • May have to repay their portion of the national debt

  • May lose territory to Canada’s Aboriginal peoples (Northern QB)

  • Economic and social problems are likely to worsen

French english speaking canadians

1995 Referendum

Homework 1995 referendum

Homework: 1995 Referendum

Read pages 364-365 and take point form notes on the following:

  • Before the referendum

  • Lucien Bouchard

  • Last day of the campaign

  • Jacques Parizeau

  • Pro-Canada forces

  • Plan B

1995 referendum question

1995 Referendum Question

“Do you agree that QB should become sovereign, after having made a formal offer to Canada for a new economic and political partnership, within the scope of the bill respecting the future of QB and of the agreement signed on June 12, 1995?”

  • A YES vote = QB gov’t has the mandate (permission) to negotiate change in QB’s status within Canada; QB independent on tax collection, foreign relations, and passage of legislation.

  • A YES VOTE – QB retains Canada’s currency, tariffs on imports, and other economic ties

Homework constitutional reform

Homework: Constitutional Reform

  • Please complete page 50 in your course package

  • Intro to review activity: What the Heck?

Clarity act 1 3

Clarity Act (1/3)

  • In response to the closeness of the 1995 referendum

  • Supreme Court ruled that QB could not unilaterally separate


  • Outline conditions which Ottawa would recognize a vote to separate from Canada (succession)

Clarity act 2 3

Clarity Act (2/3)

Key Points of the Act

  • H of C has the power to decide if the Q is clear before the public vote

  • Any Q that does not solely relate to succession, is deemed unclear

  • H of C decides whether clear majority expressed itself in a referendum

  • All provinces and First Nations are part of any negotiations if a clear majority vote for separation

  • H of C can override a referendum decision if it felt the referendum violated any aspect of the Clarity Act

Clarity act 3 3

Clarity Act (3/3)

Significance of the Act

  • There is now a clear, legal process to break up Canada

  • Separation is made more difficult

  • Some believe it grants the gov’t veto power over any referendum on sovereignty

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