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Moderators in the Relationship between the Socioeconomic Status and Health Behaviors of Individuals in Early Adulthood. Cynthia LaCoe Advisor: Dr. JoAnn Prause UROP Symposium May 31, 2007 Department of Psychology and Social Behavior School of Social Ecology University of California, Irvine.

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Moderators in the Relationship between the Socioeconomic Status and Health Behaviors of Individuals in Early Adulthood

Cynthia LaCoe

Advisor: Dr. JoAnnPrause

UROP Symposium May 31, 2007

Department of Psychology and Social Behavior

School of Social Ecology

University of California, Irvine


Overview
Overview Status and Health Behaviors of Individuals in Early Adulthood

What is SES?

What are health behaviors?

What do we know?

Hypotheses

Study Design

Findings

Implications


S ocioeconomic s tatus ses

Common measures of SES: Status and Health Behaviors of Individuals in Early Adulthood

*Income

*Educational attainment

Occupational status

SocioeconomicStatus(SES)

  • SES: An individual’s economic ranking in relation to others in his/her society (North Central Regional Educational Laboratory, 2004)


Health behaviors
Health Behaviors Status and Health Behaviors of Individuals in Early Adulthood

  • *Food Consumption

  • *Physical Activity

  • *Sedentary Activity

  • Relaxation

  • Sexual Activity

  • Substance Use


Health behaviors food consumption
Health Behaviors: Status and Health Behaviors of Individuals in Early AdulthoodFood Consumption

http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/Fpyr/pmap.htm


Health behaviors physical sedentary activity
Health Behaviors: Status and Health Behaviors of Individuals in Early AdulthoodPhysical & Sedentary Activity

  • Physical Activity

    • Definition: Bodily activity done to develop and maintain physical fitness and overall health

    • Recommendations

      • Vigorous: 20 min 3 days a week

      • Moderate: 30 min 5 days a wk

      • Strength Training: 8-12 reps for each of 8-10 muscle groups on 2 non-consecutive days

        (Circulation, 2007; Cygan, 2008)

  • Sedentary Activity

    • Definition: Activity that requires little or no physical activity (e.g., watching T.V., playing video games, using a computer)

    • Recommendations: Limit engagement


H ealth b ehaviors h ealth s tatus
H Status and Health Behaviors of Individuals in Early AdulthoodealthBehaviors&HealthStatus

Overweight and Obesity

  • Root Cause: Energy Imbalance

    • Over Consumption

    • Inadequate Expenditure

  • Prevalence

    • 33% and 34% of U.S. Residents (CDC, 2007)

    • Higher among individuals of lower SES (McLaeren, 2007)

  • Comorbidities

    • Cancer

    • Diabetes

    • Heart disease

    • Stroke


  • Ses and health behaviors
    SES and Health Behaviors Status and Health Behaviors of Individuals in Early Adulthood

    SES is associated with

    • Education and health knowledge

    • Access to supermarkets and high quality grains and produce

    • Purchase of high calorie foods (Turrell & Kavanagh, 2006; Jetter & Cassady, 2006)

    • Levels of physical activity (Wen, Browning, & Cagney, 2007)


    Hypotheses
    Hypotheses Status and Health Behaviors of Individuals in Early Adulthood

    • How does SES influence health behaviors?

      • H1: SES will directly effect health behaviors.

    • Does the relationship between SES and health behaviors depend on ethnicity or gender?

      • H2: Ethnicity and gender moderate the effect of SES on health behaviors.


    Study design
    Study Design Status and Health Behaviors of Individuals in Early Adulthood

    Secondary Analysis of NHANES Data

    • NHANES 2003-2004

      • Sample Methods

        • Stratified, Multistage

        • 10,122 Non-institutionalized U.S. residents

        • Survey (Phone, Face-to-face), Examination (MEC), Laboratory (MEC)

    • Participant Eligibility

      • 22 - 32 years of age


    Sample
    Sample Status and Health Behaviors of Individuals in Early Adulthood

    • Marital Status:

      • 39.4% Married

      • .3% Widowed

      • 3.2% Divorced

      • 2.5% Separated

      • 39.1% Never married

      • 15.5% Living with a partner

    • Sample Size = 800

    • 45.4% Males

    • Ethnicity

      • 44.9% Non Hispanic White

      • 23.4% Non Hispanic Black

      • 22.6% Mexican American

      • 9.1% Other, Multiracial

    • Mean Age = 27.1

    • Health Insurance: 67.9%

    • Employed: 72.3%

    • Mean BMI = 27.9


    Sample cont d
    Sample Cont’d Status and Health Behaviors of Individuals in Early Adulthood


    Measures
    Measures Status and Health Behaviors of Individuals in Early Adulthood


    Findings
    Findings Status and Health Behaviors of Individuals in Early Adulthood

    How does SES influence health behaviors?

    • Income

      • Positively associated with time spent in moderate activities

      • Negatively associated with hours spent in sedentary activities


    Findings cont d
    Findings Cont’d Status and Health Behaviors of Individuals in Early Adulthood

    How does SES influence health behaviors?

    • Compared with a high school education

      • Less than a high school education was associated with

        • Less time spent in moderate activities

        • Higher consumption of fruits

        • Higher consumption of vegetables

      • More than a high school education was associated with

        • Less time spent in moderate activities

        • More time spent in sedentary activities

        • Higher consumption of vegetables

        • Higher consumption of whole grains

        • Lower consumption of white bread


    Findings cont d1

    Ethnicity: Status and Health Behaviors of Individuals in Early Adulthood

    Income

    Strengthening Activities: Positively associated among Mexican Americans, but not among Non Mexican Americans

    Education

    Fruit Consumption: Mexican Americans with less than a high school education consumed more fruit than those with a high school education, no association among Non Mexican Americans

    Findings Cont’d

    Does the relationship between SES and health behaviors depend on ethnicity or gender?


    Findings cont d2
    Findings Cont’d Status and Health Behaviors of Individuals in Early Adulthood

    Does the relationship between SES and health behaviors depend on ethnicity or gender?

    • Gender

      • Income

        • Vigorous Activities: Females with higher incomes engaged in more activities; negative relationship among males

        • Strengthening Activities: Females with higher incomes engaged in more activities; virtually no association among males

        • Soft Drink Consumption: Higher income females drank more diet soft drinks than regular soft drinks; virtually no association among males

      • Education

        • White bread: Females with less than a high school education consumed more white bread than did those with a high school education; no significant association among males


    Limitations
    Limitations Status and Health Behaviors of Individuals in Early Adulthood

    • Educational attainment recoded broadly(i.e., less than high school, high school degree or equivalent, more than high school vs. K-doctoral degree)

    • Serving size(s) of food variables

    • Barriers to physical activity(e.g., neighborhood characteristics such as safety)

    • Sample size


    Implications

    Policy Status and Health Behaviors of Individuals in Early Adulthood

    Incorporate more health education into high school curriculums

    Fund basic research and intervention programs with specific target audiences

    Implications

    • Research

      • Role of acculturation in the effects of ethnicity on the relationship between SES and health behaviors

      • Ways in which education and income influence sedentary activities

    • Outreach Programs

      • Identify a target population

      • Develop population appropriate educational materials and interventions


    Acknowledgements
    Acknowledgements Status and Health Behaviors of Individuals in Early Adulthood

    Thank you:

    • Dr. JoAnn Prause

    • Dr. Valerie Jenness

    • SE Honors 2007-2008 Cohort

    • UROP

    • National Center for Health Statistics


    Contact information
    Contact Information Status and Health Behaviors of Individuals in Early Adulthood

    Cynthia LaCoe

    [email protected]

    Department of Psychology and Social Behavior

    School of Social Ecology

    University of California, Irvine


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