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Cynthia LaCoe Advisor: Dr. JoAnn Prause UROP Symposium May 31, 2007

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Moderators in the Relationship between the Socioeconomic Status and Health Behaviors of Individuals in Early Adulthood. Cynthia LaCoe Advisor: Dr. JoAnn Prause UROP Symposium May 31, 2007 Department of Psychology and Social Behavior School of Social Ecology University of California, Irvine.

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Moderators in the Relationship between the Socioeconomic Status and Health Behaviors of Individuals in Early Adulthood

Cynthia LaCoe

Advisor: Dr. JoAnnPrause

UROP Symposium May 31, 2007

Department of Psychology and Social Behavior

School of Social Ecology

University of California, Irvine

overview
Overview

What is SES?

What are health behaviors?

What do we know?

Hypotheses

Study Design

Findings

Implications

s ocioeconomic s tatus ses
Common measures of SES:

*Income

*Educational attainment

Occupational status

SocioeconomicStatus(SES)
  • SES: An individual’s economic ranking in relation to others in his/her society (North Central Regional Educational Laboratory, 2004)
health behaviors
Health Behaviors
  • *Food Consumption
  • *Physical Activity
  • *Sedentary Activity
  • Relaxation
  • Sexual Activity
  • Substance Use
health behaviors food consumption
Health Behaviors:Food Consumption

http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/Fpyr/pmap.htm

health behaviors physical sedentary activity
Health Behaviors:Physical & Sedentary Activity
  • Physical Activity
    • Definition: Bodily activity done to develop and maintain physical fitness and overall health
    • Recommendations
      • Vigorous: 20 min 3 days a week
      • Moderate: 30 min 5 days a wk
      • Strength Training: 8-12 reps for each of 8-10 muscle groups on 2 non-consecutive days

(Circulation, 2007; Cygan, 2008)

  • Sedentary Activity
    • Definition: Activity that requires little or no physical activity (e.g., watching T.V., playing video games, using a computer)
    • Recommendations: Limit engagement
h ealth b ehaviors h ealth s tatus
HealthBehaviors&HealthStatus

Overweight and Obesity

  • Root Cause: Energy Imbalance
      • Over Consumption
      • Inadequate Expenditure
  • Prevalence
    • 33% and 34% of U.S. Residents (CDC, 2007)
    • Higher among individuals of lower SES (McLaeren, 2007)
  • Comorbidities
    • Cancer
    • Diabetes
    • Heart disease
    • Stroke
ses and health behaviors
SES and Health Behaviors

SES is associated with

  • Education and health knowledge
  • Access to supermarkets and high quality grains and produce
  • Purchase of high calorie foods (Turrell & Kavanagh, 2006; Jetter & Cassady, 2006)
  • Levels of physical activity (Wen, Browning, & Cagney, 2007)
hypotheses
Hypotheses
  • How does SES influence health behaviors?
    • H1: SES will directly effect health behaviors.
  • Does the relationship between SES and health behaviors depend on ethnicity or gender?
    • H2: Ethnicity and gender moderate the effect of SES on health behaviors.
study design
Study Design

Secondary Analysis of NHANES Data

  • NHANES 2003-2004
    • Sample Methods
      • Stratified, Multistage
      • 10,122 Non-institutionalized U.S. residents
      • Survey (Phone, Face-to-face), Examination (MEC), Laboratory (MEC)
  • Participant Eligibility
    • 22 - 32 years of age
sample
Sample
  • Marital Status:
    • 39.4% Married
    • .3% Widowed
    • 3.2% Divorced
    • 2.5% Separated
    • 39.1% Never married
    • 15.5% Living with a partner
  • Sample Size = 800
  • 45.4% Males
  • Ethnicity
    • 44.9% Non Hispanic White
    • 23.4% Non Hispanic Black
    • 22.6% Mexican American
    • 9.1% Other, Multiracial
  • Mean Age = 27.1
  • Health Insurance: 67.9%
  • Employed: 72.3%
  • Mean BMI = 27.9
findings
Findings

How does SES influence health behaviors?

  • Income
    • Positively associated with time spent in moderate activities
    • Negatively associated with hours spent in sedentary activities
findings cont d
Findings Cont’d

How does SES influence health behaviors?

  • Compared with a high school education
    • Less than a high school education was associated with
      • Less time spent in moderate activities
      • Higher consumption of fruits
      • Higher consumption of vegetables
    • More than a high school education was associated with
      • Less time spent in moderate activities
      • More time spent in sedentary activities
      • Higher consumption of vegetables
      • Higher consumption of whole grains
      • Lower consumption of white bread
findings cont d1
Ethnicity:

Income

Strengthening Activities: Positively associated among Mexican Americans, but not among Non Mexican Americans

Education

Fruit Consumption: Mexican Americans with less than a high school education consumed more fruit than those with a high school education, no association among Non Mexican Americans

Findings Cont’d

Does the relationship between SES and health behaviors depend on ethnicity or gender?

findings cont d2
Findings Cont’d

Does the relationship between SES and health behaviors depend on ethnicity or gender?

  • Gender
    • Income
      • Vigorous Activities: Females with higher incomes engaged in more activities; negative relationship among males
      • Strengthening Activities: Females with higher incomes engaged in more activities; virtually no association among males
      • Soft Drink Consumption: Higher income females drank more diet soft drinks than regular soft drinks; virtually no association among males
    • Education
      • White bread: Females with less than a high school education consumed more white bread than did those with a high school education; no significant association among males
limitations
Limitations
  • Educational attainment recoded broadly(i.e., less than high school, high school degree or equivalent, more than high school vs. K-doctoral degree)
  • Serving size(s) of food variables
  • Barriers to physical activity(e.g., neighborhood characteristics such as safety)
  • Sample size
implications
Policy

Incorporate more health education into high school curriculums

Fund basic research and intervention programs with specific target audiences

Implications
  • Research
    • Role of acculturation in the effects of ethnicity on the relationship between SES and health behaviors
    • Ways in which education and income influence sedentary activities
  • Outreach Programs
    • Identify a target population
    • Develop population appropriate educational materials and interventions
acknowledgements
Acknowledgements

Thank you:

  • Dr. JoAnn Prause
  • Dr. Valerie Jenness
  • SE Honors 2007-2008 Cohort
  • UROP
  • National Center for Health Statistics
contact information
Contact Information

Cynthia LaCoe

[email protected]

Department of Psychology and Social Behavior

School of Social Ecology

University of California, Irvine

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