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MIRACLE IN PHILADEPHIA:. THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION. JAMES MADISON. “FATHER OF THE CONSTITUTION”. MADISONIAN MODEL. MADISON’S MIND SET. THE NATIONAL PRINCIPLE. CURB STATE POWER FROM IRRESPONSIBLE POLICY AND ACTING AGAINST THE COMMON GOOD

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Miracle in philadephia

MIRACLE IN

PHILADEPHIA:

THE CONSTITUTIONAL

CONVENTION


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JAMES MADISON

“FATHER OF THE

CONSTITUTION”


Madison s mind set

MADISONIAN MODEL

MADISON’S MIND SET


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THE NATIONAL PRINCIPLE


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  • CURB STATE POWER FROM IRRESPONSIBLE POLICY AND ACTING AGAINST THE COMMON GOOD

  • NATIONAL POLICY INSTEAD OF COMPETING & CONTRADICTORY STATE POLICY


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  • ARTICLES DECENTRALIZE POWER TOO MUCH

  • ONE NATION, RATHER THAN A PACT OF SOVEREIGN STATES


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THWART TYRANNY OF

THE MAJORITY


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  • PLACE AS MUCH GOVT. AS POSSIBLE BEYOND THE DIRECT CONTROL OF THE MAJORITY

  • SEPARATION OF POWERS

  • CHECKS AND BALANCES


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SUSPICION OF POWER


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  • DECENTRALIZE POWER IN CENTRAL GOVT.

  • CREATE AN “EXTENDED REPUBLIC”

  • INDIRECTLY ELECTED OFFICIALS


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MADISON'S IDEAS ON GOVT.

SERVED AS THE BASIS

FOR DISCUSSION AND DEBATE

AT THE CONVENTION


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LONE NY

DELEGATE

ALEXANDER HAMILTON


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YOUNG (32) & ARROGANT

FAVORED A

STRONG

CENTRAL

GOVERNMENT


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CO-AUTHOR

OF

THE FEDERALIST


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  • “Why has government been instituted at all? Because the passions of men will not conform to the dictates of reason and justice, without constraint.”

    • -Alexander Hamilton-


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CT- AUTHOR OF

THE GREAT OR

CONNECTICUT

COMPROMISE

ROGER SHERMAN


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The upper house (Senate) would have equal representation and be elected by the lower house

The lower house (House of Representatives) would be subject to proportional representation


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MA DELEGATE-

WOULD LEAD

FIGHT

AGAINST

RATIFICATION

ELBRIDGE GERRY


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"I had rather be a free citizen of the small republic of Massachusetts, than an oppressed subject of the great American empire."-Elbridge Gerry-


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THE MEETING

AGENDA


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AREAS OF

AGREEMENT


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HUMAN NATURE

1. PEOPLE ARE

SELF-INTERESTED


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2. PEOPLE LIKE,

AND ABUSE,

POWER


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3. FACTIONS

INEVITABLE &

LEAD TO

POLITICAL

CONFLICT


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“faction, a number of citizens, whether amounting to a majority or a minority of the whole, who are united and actuated by some common impulse of passion, or of interest, adversed to the rights of other citizens, or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community.”

- James Madison, Federalist 10


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TO DESTROY THEM

WOULD BE TO

DESTROY LIBERTY


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TO GO UNCHECKED

FACTIONS WILL

DESTROY GOVT.


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“But what is government itself but the greatest of all reflections on human nature? If men were angels, no government would be necessary.”

– James Madison-


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4. GOAL OR PURPOSE

OF GOVT. WAS TO

PROTECT & PRESERVE

PROPERTY RIGHTS


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5. GOVERNMENT

MUST BE BALANCED

STATE

GOVT.

NAT'L

GOVT.


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6. POWER NEEDS TO

BE DISPERSED


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POWER CHECKING POWER


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POWER CHECKING POWER


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“the great security against a (tyranny), consists in giving to those who administer each department the necessary constitutional means and personal motives to resist encroachments of the others. Ambition must be made to counteract ambition.”

- James Madison, Federalist 51-


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AREAS OF

DISAGREEMENT


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1. REPRESENTATION

DISAGREEMENTS:

PEOPLE OR STATES?


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BIG v. SMALL STATES


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VIRGINIA OR LARGE

STATE PLAN

RUTLEDGE &

MADISON


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ELECT

ELECT

LOWER

HOUSE

UPPER

HOUSE


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ELECT

WHO SAID "NO WAY!"?

ELECT

LOWER

HOUSE

UPPER

HOUSE


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NEW JERSEY OR

SMALL STATE PLAN

WILLIAM

PATERSON


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EQUALLY

REPRESENTED


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MAJOR

STALEMATE

HOW WAS IT

RESOLVED?


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2 EACH

ELECT

COMPROMISE


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SLAVERY

DISAGREEMENTS:

SHOULD SLAVES BE

COUNTED AND TAXED?


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YES TO COUNTING

NO TO TAXING SLAVES-

WHY?


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NO TO COUNTING

YES TO TAXING SLAVES-

WHY?


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MAJOR

STALEMATE

HOW WAS IT

RESOLVED?


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140,178

+ 3/5 108,895

140,178

+ 65,337

= 205,515

3/5 COMPROMISE


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ECONOMICS &

DISAGREEMENTS

COMMERCE COMPROMISES


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$54 MILLION IN1787

$539,896,802.21

CONVERTED TO TODAY


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STATES COULD NO

LONGER COIN $$$


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ONLY CONGRESS

COULD REGULATE

FREE TRADE

INTERSTATE COMMERCE


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THE NEW

NATIONAL

GOVT. COULD...


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1. BORROW


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2. TAX


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3. TAX IMPORTS

(TARIFFS)


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NOT EXPORTS


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4. SOLE POWER TO

COIN MONEY


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5. POLITICAL EQUALITY

DISAGREEMENTS:

UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE OR

QUALIFICATIONS TO VOTE?


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FRAMERS COULD NOT

DECIDE & LEFT

IT TO THE STATES


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WHAT DID THE STATES DO?


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AFTER 109 DAYS IN

STIFLING HEAT,

A MOTION WAS MADE TO

APPROVE THE DOCUMENT-

TEN STATES VOTED YES

& TWO ABSTAINED


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39 OF THE 55

DELEGATES WOULD

SIGN THE DOCUMENT


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THE MEMBERS THEN

ADJOURNED TO

A TAVERN


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Consequently, anxious citizens gathered outside Independence Hall when the proceedings ended in order to learn what had been produced behind closed doors. The answer was provided immediately. A Mrs. Powel of Philadelphia asked Benjamin Franklin,

"Well, Doctor, what have we got, a republic or a monarchy?"

With no hesitation whatsoever, Franklin responded,

"A republic, if you can keep it." 


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THE REAL WORK & STRUGGLE

NOW LAY AHEAD- THE

DOCUMENT HAD TO BE

RATIFIED BY 9 OF 13 STATES


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