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Don’t Fail Your Courses: Cite Your Sources!. Shawn V. Lombardo Reference Librarian Kresge Library [email protected] Examples of Academic Cheating. Cheating on an exam “Unauthorized collaboration” Plagiarism Falsifying lab results/data

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Don’t Fail Your Courses: Cite Your Sources!

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Don t fail your courses cite your sources

Don’t Fail Your Courses: Cite Your Sources!

Shawn V. Lombardo

Reference Librarian

Kresge Library

[email protected]


Examples of academic cheating

Examples of Academic Cheating

  • Cheating on an exam

  • “Unauthorized collaboration”

  • Plagiarism

  • Falsifying lab results/data

  • Submitting a paper from one class to another class (w/out prior approval)

From the OU Student Handbook, Academic Conduct Regulations


Why students cheat

Why Students Cheat

7.Everyone’s doing it…

6. Pressure to do well

5. The teacher doesn’t care, so why should I?

4. Famous people cheat

3. Didn’t have enough time

2. Laziness

1. They didn’t realize they were doing it!

Teaching & Learning Bridges

http://www.usask.ca/tlc/bridges_journal/v1n3_jan_03/v1n3_why_cheat.html


Examples of plagiarism unauthorized copying

Examples of Plagiarism & Unauthorized Copying

  • NPR story on Stephen Ambrose

  • Vanilla Ice vs. David Bowie & Queen

Examples from Janice Cooper, Plagiarism Workshop

http://mail.nvnet.org/~cooper_j/plagiarism/


What is plagiarism

What is Plagiarism?

  • “Failing to cite quotations and borrowed ideas.

  • Failing to enclose borrowed language in quotation marks.

  • Failing to put summaries and paraphrases in your own words.”

(Bedford Handbook, 570.)


When is it plagiarism

When is it Plagiarism?

  • Intentional

    • Intentional copying/paraphrasing, without attribution, in order to pass off another’s work as one’s own

    • Paper sharing/term paper mills

  • Unintentional

    • Improper paraphrasing*

      • “If I change every 5th word, it’s not plagiarism, right?”

      • Unconscious plagiarism

    • Not citing properly*


Paraphrasing is this plagiarism

Original Source

If the existence of a signing ape was unsettling for linguists, it was also startling news for animal behaviorists.

(An excerpt from an article by B. Davis)

Version A

The existence of a signing ape unsettled linguists and startled animal behaviorists (Davis, 26).

Paraphrasing: Is this Plagiarism?

This exercise is from The Bedford Handbook


Answer a

Original Source

If the existence of a signing ape was unsettling for linguists, it was also startling news for animal behaviorists.

Version A

The existence of a signing apeunsettled linguists and startled animal behaviorists (Davis, 26).

Answer: Plagiarism. Even though the writer has cited the source, the writer has not used quotation marks around the direct quotation, "the existence of a signing ape." In addition, the phrase, "unsettled linguists and startled animal behaviorists," closely resembles the wording of the source.

Answer A


Paraphrasing is this plagiarism1

Original Source

If the existence of a signing ape was unsettling for linguists, it was also startling news for animal behaviorists.

Version B

If the presence of a sign-language-using chimp was disturbing for scientists studying language, it was also surprising to scientists studying animal behavior (Davis, 26).

Paraphrasing: Is this Plagiarism?


Answer b

Original Source

If the existence of a signing ape was unsettling for linguists, it was also startling news for animal behaviorists.

Version B

If the presence of a sign-language-using chimp was disturbing for scientists studying language, it was also surprising to scientists studying animal behavior (Davis, 26).

Answer:Still plagiarism. Even though the writer has substituted synonyms and cited the source, the writer is plagiarizing because the source's sentence structure is unchanged.

Answer B


Paraphrasing is this plagiarism2

Original Source

If the existence of a signing ape was unsettling for linguists, it was also startling news for animal behaviorists.

Version C

According to Flora Davis, linguists and animal behaviorists were unprepared for the news that a chimp could communicate with its trainers through sign language (Davis, 26).

Paraphrasing: Is this Plagiarism?


Answer c

Original Source

If the existence of a signing ape was unsettling for linguists, it was also startling news for animal behaviorists.

Version C

According to Flora Davis, linguists and animal behaviorists were unprepared for the news that a chimp could communicate with its trainers through sign language (Davis, 26).

Answer:No plagiarism. This is an appropriate paraphrase of the original sentence.

Answer C


A summary of proper documentation

A Summary of Proper Documentation

  • Exact phrases

    • Quotation marks around the phrase

    • Cite the author in the text (author’s last name, page number); include the source on your Works Cited page.

  • Paraphrasing

    • Change the wording AND sentence structure

    • Cite the author in the text; include the source on your Works Cited page.

  • Ideas

    • Cite the author in the text; include the source on your Works Cited page.

  • Common knowledge

    • No need to cite


Documentation guidelines

Documentation Guidelines

  • Be sure to note all necessary information for a complete citation

  • Ask your professor what citation style is required/recommended

    • MLA, APA, Chicago, Turabian, CBE

  • Consult the appropriate style manual


Examples of proper mla citations

Examples of Proper MLA Citations

  • Book by a Single Author

  • In-text example:

  • (Sagan 98)

  • Reference list example:

  • Sagan, Carl. The Demon-Haunted World:

    • Science as a Candle in the Dark. New York: Random House, 1996.


Mla examples

MLA Examples

Article in a Weekly Magazine

In Text Example:

(Mitchell and Winters 34)

Reference list example:

Mitchell, Emily, and Rebecca Winters. "They Came, They Stayed." Time 8 Mar. 1999: 28-35.


Mla examples1

MLA Examples

Web Site

In-text example:

(Monfredo)

Reference list example:

Monfredo, Miriam Grace. Home page. 1 Aug. 1999 <http://www.Miriamgracemonfredo.com/>.


What s wrong with this reference

What’s Wrong with this Reference?

Jowett, L. Sex and the slayer: A gender studies primer for the Buffy fan. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan UP, 2005.

  • Need author’s first name.

  • Underline book title.

  • Capitalize important words in the book title.


What s wrong with this reference1

What’s Wrong with this Reference?

Frank, Lisa and Miller, Tom. The Evolution of the Seven Sins: From God to the Simpsons. Journal of Popular Culture. 35: 95-105.

  • 2nd author’s name should be reversed.

  • Need a comma after the first author’s name.

  • Journal/mag. title should be underlined.

  • Need quotation marks around the article title.

  • The publication date is missing.

  • No period after the journal title.


What s wrong with this reference2

What’s Wrong with this Reference?

Pierson, David P. Journal of Popular Culture. “A Show about Nothing: Seinfeld and the Modern Comedy of Manners.” Vol. 34, i. 1 (Summer 2000): p. 49-64. WilsonSelectPlus. FirstSearch <http://newfirstsearch.oclc.org>.

  • Journal/mag. title should follow the article title.

  • You don’t need to include the issue # or “Summer.”

  • Must include date the article was retrieved.

  • Database name should be underlined.


More tips to avoid plagiarism organizing your work

More Tips to Avoid Plagiarism: Organizing Your Work

  • Start early!

  • Create a working bibliography.

  • Keep copies of all sources.


Tips note taking

Tips: Note Taking

  • Take careful notes!

  • Try “blind” paraphrasing.

  • Use index cards – one for each quotation/paraphrase/idea.

  • Try the “Green Ink” or double-entry note-taking method.


Double entry journal example

Lord of the Flies

"Now we come to the most important thing. I've been thinking...We want to have fun. And we want to be rescued." (p. 37)

This quote captures how Ralph is stuck between two courses of action. He wants to be a kid, to be carefree; but he also wants to get rescued, to be responsible, and to lead the younger kids to safety. He is stuck between the adult world, represented by Piggy, and the world of childish wants, represented by Jack. I wonder which route he will eventually follow...

Double-Entry Journal Example

From Guidelines for Double-Entry Journal Notes

http://www.husd.k12.ca.us/hayward/english/journalnotes.html


Tips writing your paper

Tips: Writing Your Paper

  • Write your first draft w/out consulting notes or sources.

  • Use signal phrases to introduce quotes.

  • Place quotation marks around passages that you copy/paste from the Web.

  • Keep your style manual handy! Or consult the OU Student Writing Guide

  • When in doubt, cite!


Need more help

Need More Help?

  • KL Writing Resources for Students

  • KL Citation Guides

  • The Writing Center! – 212 KL


  • Login