I. Scientific Method. A. 6 Steps 1). Observing – using 1 or more of the 5 senses to look at objects / events. a. How “old” science was done. b. Measuring – determining the dimensions of an object with a numerical value. 2). Hypothesis – a testable statement.
1). Observing – using 1 or more of the 5 senses to look at objects / events.
a. How “old” science was done.
b. Measuring – determining the dimensions of an object with a numerical value.
2). Hypothesis – a testable statement.
3). Experiment – procedure to test the hypothesis.
a. Test only 1 variable at a time
1. Why? know which variable is causing the result.
2. Independent variable – variable that is changed in the experiment.
a. Ex: time, water amount, fertilizer, antibiotic, etc.
3. Dependent variable – variable that is measured.
a. Ex: height, time, etc.
4. Controlled variable – variable that could be changed, but is held constant.
4). Results – measured end products of your experiment.
5). Analysis – determining if results support/refute the hypothesis.
b. Organizing data placing results in a graph, chart, table, or map.
6). Conclusion – basic bottom line of experiment using hypothesis and results.
B. Do Scientist communicate?
1). Yes, by conferences and scientific papers.
2). Communication – allows scientists to build on the work of others.
C. Scientific sampling – a small sample is used to represent an entire population
II. Characteristics of Living Things
A. These include the following:
1). Made of units called cells.
2). They reproduce.
3). Based on universal genetic code (DNA)
4). Grow and develop.
5). Obtain & use materials and energy.
6). Respond to their environment. (Behavior)
7). Maintain a stable internal environment.
A. Types of microscopes:
1). Dissecting microscope
2). Light microscope
3). Transmission electron microscope – (TEM)
a. Transmits a beam through a very thinly sliced specimen.
4). Scanning electron microscope – (SEM)
a. Scans the surface of an object with a beam of electrons, e-.
B. Parts and Functions with high detail
1). Eyepiece/ocular magnifies & serves as a place to view specimens
2). Body tube Area for light path
3). Revolving Turns allowing nosepiece differing objective lenses to be used
4). Objective lenses Holds lenses with different magnification
5). Stage Support for the slide or specimen
6). Stage clips Prevents the slide from moving.
Parts with high detailFunctions
7). Arm Used to carry the microscope
8). Base Supports the entire microscope
9). Inclination Joint Allows the microscope to be angled
10).Light Source Mirror or fluorescent bulb
11). Coarse Adjustment Allows for basic Knob focusing
12). Fine Adjustment Allows for fine Knob focusing
13). Diaphragm Changes the light to adjust contrast
14). Condenser Concentrates light into a smaller beam
C. Other Characteristics with high detail
1). Total magnification of a microscope:
a. Total magnification = ocular mag. X objective mag.
b. Ex: 400X = 10X X 40X
2). Field of view patterns:
a. As magnification increases, field of view decreases
b. Specimen is upside down and backwards through ocular