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Chapter 40. Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function. Overview: Diverse Forms, Common Challenges Animals inhabit almost every part of the biosphere Despite their amazing diversity All animals face a similar set of problems, including how to nourish themselves. Figure 40.1.

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Chapter 40

Chapter 40

Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function



Figure 40.1

  • The comparative study of animals

    • Reveals that form and function are closely correlated




Physical laws and animal form
Physical Laws and Animal Form animal size and shape

  • The ability to perform certain actions

    • Depends on an animal’s shape and size


  • Evolutionary convergence animal size and shape

    • Reflects different species’ independent adaptation to a similar environmental challenge

(a) Tuna

(b) Shark

(c) Penguin

(d) Dolphin

Figure 40.2a–e

(e) Seal


Exchange with the environment
Exchange with the Environment animal size and shape

  • An animal’s size and shape

    • Have a direct effect on how the animal exchanges energy and materials with its surroundings

  • Exchange with the environment occurs as substances dissolved in the aqueous medium

    • Diffuse and are transported across the cells’ plasma membranes


Diffusion animal size and shape

(a) Single cell

  • A single-celled protist living in water

    • Has a sufficient surface area of plasma membrane to service its entire volume of cytoplasm

Figure 40.3a


Mouth

Gastrovascular

cavity

Diffusion

Diffusion

Figure 40.3b

(b) Two cell layers



External environment animal size and shape

Food

CO2

O2

Mouth

Animal

body

Respiratory

system

Blood

50 µm

0.5 cm

A microscopic view of the lung reveals

that it is much more spongelike than

balloonlike. This construction provides

an expansive wet surface for gas

exchange with the environment (SEM).

Cells

Heart

Nutrients

Circulatory

system

10 µm

Interstitial

fluid

Digestive

system

Excretory

system

The lining of the small intestine, a diges-

tive organ, is elaborated with fingerlike

projections that expand the surface area

for nutrient absorption (cross-section, SEM).

Inside a kidney is a mass of microscopic

tubules that exhange chemicals with

blood flowing through a web of tiny

vessels called capillaries (SEM).

Anus

Unabsorbed

matter (feces)

Metabolic waste

products (urine)

Figure 40.4



Tissue structure and function
Tissue Structure and Function organization

  • Different types of tissues

    • Have different structures that are suited to their functions

  • Tissues are classified into four main categories

    • Epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous


Epithelial tissue
Epithelial Tissue organization

  • Epithelial tissue

    • Covers the outside of the body and lines organs and cavities within the body

    • Contains cells that are closely joined


EPITHELIAL TISSUE

Columnar epithelia, which have cells with relatively large cytoplasmic volumes, are often

located where secretion or active absorption of substances is an important function.

A simple

columnar

epithelium

A stratified columnar

epithelium

A pseudostratified

ciliated columnar

epithelium

Stratified squamous epithelia

Cuboidal epithelia

Simple squamous epithelia

Basement membrane

Figure 40.5

40 µm


Connective tissue
Connective Tissue organization

  • Connective tissue

    • Functions mainly to bind and support other tissues

    • Contains sparsely packed cells scattered throughout an extracellular matrix


CONNECTIVE TISSUE organization

  • Connective tissue

100 µm

Chondrocytes

Collagenous

fiber

Chondroitin

sulfate

Elastic

fiber

100 µm

Cartilage

Loose connective tissue

Adipose tissue

Fibrous connective tissue

Fat droplets

Nuclei

150 µm

30 µm

Blood

Bone

Central

canal

Red blood cells

White blood cell

Osteon

Plasma

Figure 40.5

700 µm

55 µm


Muscle tissue
Muscle Tissue organization

  • Muscle tissue

    • Is composed of long cells called muscle fibers capable of contracting in response to nerve signals

    • Is divided in the vertebrate body into three types: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth


Nervous tissue
Nervous Tissue organization

  • Nervous tissue

    • Senses stimuli and transmits signals throughout the animal


MUSCLE TISSUE

100 µm

Skeletal muscle

Multiple

nuclei

Muscle fiber

Sarcomere

Cardiac muscle

50 µm

Nucleus

Intercalated

disk

Smooth muscle

Nucleus

Muscle

fibers

25 µm

NERVOUS TISSUE

Process

Neurons

Cell body

Nucleus

Figure 40.5

50 µm


Organs and organ systems
Organs and Organ Systems organization

  • In all but the simplest animals

    • Different tissues are organized into organs


Lumen of organization

stomach

Mucosa. The mucosa is an

epithelial layer that lines

the lumen.

Submucosa. The submucosa is

a matrix of connective tissue

that contains blood vessels

and nerves.

Muscularis. The muscularis consistsmainly of smooth muscle tissue.

Serosa. External to the muscularis is the serosa,a thin layer of connective and epithelial tissue.

0.2 mm

  • In some organs

    • The tissues are arranged in layers

Figure 40.6



Table 40.1



Bioenergetics
Bioenergetics sustain form and function

  • The flow of energy through an animal, its bioenergetics

    • Ultimately limits the animal’s behavior, growth, and reproduction

    • Determines how much food it needs

  • Studying an animal’s bioenergetics

    • Tells us a great deal about the animal’s adaptations


Energy sources and allocation
Energy Sources and Allocation sustain form and function

  • Animals harvest chemical energy

    • From the food they eat

  • Once food has been digested, the energy-containing molecules

    • Are usually used to make ATP, which powers cellular work


Organic molecules

in food

External

environment

Animal

body

Digestion and

absorption

Heat

Energy

lost in

feces

Nutrient molecules

in body cells

Energy

lost in

urine

Cellular

respiration

Carbon

skeletons

Heat

ATP

Biosynthesis:

growth,

storage, and

reproduction

Cellular

work

Heat

Figure 40.7

Heat


Quantifying energy use
Quantifying Energy Use sustain form and function

  • An animal’s metabolic rate

    • Is the amount of energy an animal uses in a unit of time

    • Can be measured in a variety of ways


(a) sustain form and function

This photograph shows a ghost crab in arespirometer. Temperature is held constant in thechamber, with air of known O2 concentration flow-ing through. The crab’s metabolic rate is calculatedfrom the difference between the amount of O2entering and the amount of O2 leaving therespirometer. This crab is on a treadmill, runningat a constant speed as measurements are made.

(b) Similarly, the metabolic rate of a manfitted with a breathing apparatus isbeing monitored while he works outon a stationary bike.

Figure 40.8a, b

  • One way to measure metabolic rate

    • Is to determine the amount of oxygen consumed or carbon dioxide produced by an organism


Bioenergetic strategies
Bioenergetic Strategies sustain form and function

  • An animal’s metabolic rate

    • Is closely related to its bioenergetic strategy



Stem elongation
Stem Elongation sustain form and function

  • Amphibians and reptiles other than birds are ectothermic, meaning that

    • They gain their heat mostly from external sources

    • They have lower metabolic rates


Influences on metabolic rate
Influences on Metabolic Rate sustain form and function

  • The metabolic rates of animals

    • Are affected by many factors


Size and metabolic rate
Size and Metabolic Rate sustain form and function

  • Metabolic rate per gram

    • Is inversely related to body size among similar animals


Activity and metabolic rate
Activity and Metabolic Rate sustain form and function

  • The basal metabolic rate (BMR)

    • Is the metabolic rate of an endotherm at rest

  • The standard metabolic rate (SMR)

    • Is the metabolic rate of an ectotherm at rest

  • For both endotherms and ectotherms

    • Activity has a large effect on metabolic rate


500 sustain form and function

A = 60-kg alligator

A

H

100

H

A

H = 60-kg human

50

H

Maximum metabolic rate

(kcal/min; log scale)

10

H

H

5

A

1

A

A

0.5

0.1

1

minute

1

second

1

hour

1

day

1

week

Time interval

Key

Existing intracellular ATP

ATP from glycolysis

ATP from aerobic respiration

  • In general, an animal’s maximum possible metabolic rate

    • Is inversely related to the duration of the activity

Figure 40.9


Energy budgets
Energy Budgets sustain form and function

  • Different species of animals

    • Use the energy and materials in food in different ways, depending on their environment


Endotherms sustain form and function

Ectotherm

Reproduction

800,000

Temperature

regulation costs

Basal

metabolic

rate

Growth

340,000

Activity

costs

Annual energy expenditure (kcal/yr)

8,000

4,000

0.025-kg female deer mouse

from temperate

North America

4-kg male Adélie penguin

from Antarctica (brooding)

60-kg female human

from temperate climate

4-kg female python

from Australia

(a)

Total annual energy expenditures

438

Human

233

Energy expenditure per unit mass

(kcal/kg•day)

Python

Deer mouse

Adélie penguin

36.5

5.5

Energy expenditures per unit mass (kcal/kg•day)

(b)

  • An animal’s use of energy

    • Is partitioned to BMR (or SMR), activity, homeostasis, growth, and reproduction

Figure 40.10a, b


  • Animals regulate their internal environment within relatively narrow limits

  • The internal environment of vertebrates

    • Is called the interstitial fluid, and is very different from the external environment

  • Homeostasis is a balance between external changes

    • And the animal’s internal control mechanisms that oppose the changes


Regulating and conforming
Regulating and Conforming relatively narrow limits

  • Regulating and conforming

    • Are two extremes in how animals cope with environmental fluctuations


Mechanisms of homeostasis
Mechanisms of Homeostasis relatively narrow limits

  • Mechanisms of homeostasis

    • Moderate changes in the internal environment


Response relatively narrow limits

No heat

produced

Heater

turned

off

Room

temperature

decreases

Set

point

Too

hot

Set point

Too

cold

Set

point

Control center:

thermostat

Room

temperature

increases

Heater

turned

on

Response

Heat

produced

  • A homeostatic control system has three functional components

    • A receptor, a control center, and an effector

Figure 40.11





Ectotherms and endotherms
Ectotherms and Endotherms anatomy, physiology, and behavior

  • Ectotherms

    • Include most invertebrates, fishes, amphibians, and non-bird reptiles

  • Endotherms

    • Include birds and mammals


40 anatomy, physiology, and behavior

River otter (endotherm)

30

Body temperature (°C)

20

Largemouth bass (ectotherm)

10

0

10

20

30

40

Ambient (environmental) temperature (°C)

  • In general, ectotherms

    • Tolerate greater variation in internal temperature than endotherms

Figure 40.12



Modes of heat exchange

Radiation anatomy, physiology, and behavior is the emission of electromagnetic

waves by all objects warmer than absolute

zero. Radiation can transfer heat between

objects that are not in direct contact, as when

a lizard absorbs heat radiating from the sun.

Evaporation is the removal of heat from the surface of a

liquid that is losing some of its molecules as gas.

Evaporation of water from a lizard’s moist surfaces that

are exposed to the environment has a strong cooling effect.

Conduction is the direct transfer of thermal motion (heat)

between molecules of objects in direct contact with each

other, as when a lizard sits on a hot rock.

Convection is the transfer of heat by the

movement of air or liquid past a surface,

as when a breeze contributes to heat loss

from a lizard’s dry skin, or blood moves

heat from the body core to the extremities.

Modes of Heat Exchange

  • Organisms exchange heat by four physical processes

Figure 40.13


Balancing heat loss and gain
Balancing Heat Loss and Gain anatomy, physiology, and behavior

  • Thermoregulation involves physiological and behavioral adjustments

    • That balance heat gain and loss


Insulation
Insulation anatomy, physiology, and behavior

  • Insulation, which is a major thermoregulatory adaptation in mammals and birds

    • Reduces the flow of heat between an animal and its environment

    • May include feathers, fur, or blubber


Hair

Epidermis

Sweat

pore

Muscle

Dermis

Nerve

Sweat

gland

Hypodermis

Adipose tissue

Blood vessels

Oil gland

Figure 40.14

Hair follicle


Circulatory adaptations
Circulatory Adaptations anatomy, physiology, and behavior

  • Many endotherms and some ectotherms

    • Can alter the amount of blood flowing between the body core and the skin


  • In vasodilation anatomy, physiology, and behavior

    • Blood flow in the skin increases, facilitating heat loss

  • In vasoconstriction

    • Blood flow in the skin decreases, lowering heat loss


Pacific anatomy, physiology, and behavior

bottlenose

dolphin

Arteries carrying warm blood down the

legs of a goose or the flippers of a dolphin

are in close contact with veins conveying

cool blood in the opposite direction, back

toward the trunk of the body. This

arrangement facilitates heat transfer

from arteries to veins (black

arrows) along the entire length

of the blood vessels.

1

Canada

goose

Blood flow

1

Artery

Vein

Vein

Near the end of the leg or flipper, where

arterial blood has been cooled to far below

the animal’s core temperature, the artery

can still transfer heat to the even colder

blood of an adjacent vein. The venous blood

continues to absorb heat as it passes warmer

and warmer arterial blood traveling in the

opposite direction.

2

Artery

3

35°C

33°

3

30º

27º

20º

18º

2

10º

In the flippers of a dolphin, each artery is

surrounded by several veins in a

countercurrent arrangement, allowing

efficient heat exchange between arterial

and venous blood.

As the venous blood approaches the

center of the body, it is almost as warm

as the body core, minimizing the heat lost

as a result of supplying blood to body parts

immersed in cold water.

2

3

  • Many marine mammals and birds

    • Have arrangements of blood vessels called countercurrent heat exchangers that are important for reducing heat loss

3

1

Figure 40.15


21º anatomy, physiology, and behavior

23º

25º

27º

29º

31º

Body cavity

Skin

Artery

Vein

Blood

vessels

in gills

Capillary

network within

muscle

Heart

Artery and

vein under

the skin

Dorsal aorta

  • Some specialized bony fishes and sharks

    • Also possess countercurrent heat exchangers

(a) Bluefin tuna. Unlike most fishes, the bluefin tuna maintains

temperatures in its main swimming muscles that are much higher

than the surrounding water (colors indicate swimming muscles cut

in transverse section). These temperatures were recorded for a tuna

in 19°C water.

(b) Great white shark. Like the bluefin tuna, the great white shark

has a countercurrent heat exchanger in its swimming muscles that

reduces the loss of metabolic heat. All bony fishes and sharks lose

heat to the surrounding water when their blood passes through the

gills. However, endothermic sharks have a small dorsal aorta,

and as a result, relatively little cold blood from the gills goes directly

to the core of the body. Instead, most of the blood leaving the gills

is conveyed via large arteries just under the skin, keeping cool blood

away from the body core. As shown in the enlargement, small

arteries carrying cool blood inward from the large arteries under the

skin are paralleled by small veins carrying warm blood outward from

the inner body. This countercurrent flow retains heat in the muscles.

Figure 40.16a, b


  • Many endothermic insects anatomy, physiology, and behavior

    • Have countercurrent heat exchangers that help maintain a high temperature in the thorax

Figure 40.17


Cooling by evaporative heat loss
Cooling by Evaporative Heat Loss anatomy, physiology, and behavior

  • Many types of animals

    • Lose heat through the evaporation of water in sweat

    • Use panting to cool their bodies


Figure 40.18


Behavioral responses
Behavioral Responses anatomy, physiology, and behavior

  • Both endotherms and ectotherms

    • Use a variety of behavioral responses to control body temperature


  • Some terrestrial invertebrates anatomy, physiology, and behavior

    • Have certain postures that enable them to minimize or maximize their absorption of heat from the sun

Figure 40.19


Adjusting metabolic heat production
Adjusting Metabolic Heat Production anatomy, physiology, and behavior

  • Some animals can regulate body temperature

    • By adjusting their rate of metabolic heat production


PREFLIGHT anatomy, physiology, and behavior

WARMUP

PREFLIGHT

FLIGHT

40

Thorax

35

Temperature (°C)

30

Abdomen

25

0

2

4

Time from onset of warmup (min)

  • Many species of flying insects

    • Use shivering to warm up before taking flight

Figure 40.20


Feedback mechanisms in thermoregulation
Feedback Mechanisms in Thermoregulation anatomy, physiology, and behavior

  • Mammals regulate their body temperature

    • By a complex negative feedback system that involves several organ systems


Sweat glands secrete anatomy, physiology, and behavior

sweat that evaporates,

cooling the body.

Thermostat in

hypothalamus

activates cooling

mechanisms.

Blood vessels

in skin dilate:

capillaries fill

with warm blood;

heat radiates from

skin surface.

Increased body

temperature (such

as when exercising

or in hot

surroundings)

Body temperature

decreases;

thermostat

shuts off cooling

mechanisms.

Homeostasis:

Internal body temperature

of approximately 36–38C

Body temperature

increases;

thermostat

shuts off warming

mechanisms.

Decreased body

temperature

(such as when

in cold

surroundings)

Blood vessels in skin

constrict, diverting blood

from skin to deeper tissues

and reducing heat loss

from skin surface.

Thermostat in

hypothalamus

activates

warming

mechanisms.

Skeletal muscles rapidly

contract, causing shivering,

which generates heat.

  • In humans, a specific part of the brain, the hypothalamus

    • Contains a group of nerve cells that function as a thermostat

Figure 40.21


Adjustment to changing temperatures
Adjustment to Changing Temperatures anatomy, physiology, and behavior

  • In a process known as acclimatization

    • Many animals can adjust to a new range of environmental temperatures over a period of days or weeks



Torpor and energy conservation
Torpor and Energy Conservation anatomy, physiology, and behavior

  • Torpor

    • Is an adaptation that enables animals to save energy while avoiding difficult and dangerous conditions

    • Is a physiological state in which activity is low and metabolism decreases


  • Hibernation is long-term torpor anatomy, physiology, and behavior

    • That is an adaptation to winter cold and food scarcity during which the animal’s body temperature declines

Additional metabolism that would be

necessary to stay active in winter

200

Actual

metabolism

100

Figure 40.22

Metabolic rate

(kcal per day)

0

Arousals

35

Body

temperature

30

25

20

Temperature (°C)

15

10

5

0

Outside

temperature

Burrow

temperature

-5

-10

-15

June

August

October

December

February

April


  • Estivation, or summer torpor anatomy, physiology, and behavior

    • Enables animals to survive long periods of high temperatures and scarce water supplies

  • Daily torpor

    • Is exhibited by many small mammals and birds and seems to be adapted to their feeding patterns


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