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Pluralist model of public policy. Think tanks. Interest groups. Pre-election party policy. Post election government policy. Public policy. Civil servants. Public opinion. Lobbyists. Pluralist model of public policy. Interest groups. Pre-election party policy. Post election

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Pluralist model of public policy

Think tanks

Interest groups

Pre-election

party policy

Post election

government policy

Public policy

Civil servants

Public opinion

Lobbyists


Pluralist model of public policy

Interest groups

Pre-election

party policy

Post election

government policy

Public policy

Civil servants

Public oinion

Lobbyists


Pluralist model of public policy

Interest groups

Pre-election

party policy

Post election

government policy

Public policy

Civil servants

Lobbyists


Pluralist model of public policy

Interest groups

Pre-election

party policy

Post election

government policy

Public policy

Civil servants


Pluralist model of public policy

Interest groups

Pre-election

party policy

Post election

government policy

Public policy

Civil servants


Pluralist model of public policy

Interest groups

Post election

government policy

Public policy

Civil servants


Prime minister (directs overall policy)

Cabinet (directs individual departmental policy)

Civil service (implements policy)

Traditional model of executive power


The Core Executive(Taken from Peter Dorey, Policy Making in Britain, Figure 3.1, p. 50)


Core executive relations

1. Actors possess resources

legal

constitutional

political

hierarchical

technical

informational

2. Bargaining between actors involves exchange of resources

3. Power is based on dependency – no one can act without support from other actors

4. Structural and institutional constraints apply to actors

5. Dependency varies with circumstances

Further reading: M. J. Smith, The Core Executive in Britain (Palgrave, 1999),

ch. 4

Core executive relations


Interest groups and policy networks
Interest groups and policy networks

  • Origin of policy network theory:

    ‘Iron triangles’ of US policy making – 1960s

  • Based on resource exchange

  • Dependencies between actors

  • Degree of dependence of each actor can vary with circumstances


Policy communities & issue networks (1)(D. Marsh and R A W Rhodes, ‘Policy networks in British politics’, in Marsh and Rhodes (eds), Policy Networks in British Government (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992)

Policy community:

  • Limited number of participants

  • Close links between members based on resource exchange

  • Shared values

  • Balanced power between members

    e.g. NFU/Ministry of Agriculture


Policy communities & issue networks (2)(D. Marsh and R A W Rhodes, ‘Policy networks in British politics’, in Marsh and Rhodes (eds), Policy Networks in British Government (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992)

Issue network:

  • Large number of participants

  • Diverse values

  • Based on consultation, not resource exchange

  • Unequal power

    e.g. fox hunting


Criticism of network theory
Criticism of network theory

  • Problem of identifying actors

  • Descriptive, not analytic

  • Artificial patterns?

    (e.g., is the NFU-Ministry of Agriculture relationship really comparable to the relationship between the pro- and anti-fox-hunting lobbies?)


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