# Lesson Objective Calculate the concentration of solutions in units of molarity - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Lesson Objective Calculate the concentration of solutions in units of molarity Calculate the dilution of solutions in units of molarity. Solutions are made in various concentrations Concentration depends on the amount of solute dissolved in a given amount of solvent

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Lesson Objective Calculate the concentration of solutions in units of molarity

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#### Presentation Transcript

Lesson Objective

• Calculate the concentration of solutions in units of molarity

• Calculate the dilution of solutions in units of molarity

• Solutions are made in various concentrations

• Concentration depends on the amount of solute dissolved in a given amount of solvent

• Molarity (M) – number of moles of solute dissolved in one liter of the solution

• Units of mol/L or M

Ex) 2 mol/L = 2 M

• The higher the molarity, the more concentrated the solution

• Molarity

By Leridant[CC-BY-SA-2.5]

Decreasing Concentration

• Convert given units, if necessary, before plugging into the molarity equation

• Mass to moles

• Volume to liters

Ex) 2 M solution of NaOHdescribes a solution in which every liter of solution contains 2 moles of NaOH

• Calculating Molarity

• Molarity Calculation

• Write unknown and givens

V = 500. mL

m= 102 g

Molar mass = 58.44 g/mol

M = ?

• Identify the formula and rearrange, if needed

Ex) What is the concentration of a 500. mL salt solution containing 102 g of NaCl? (Molar mass of NaCl = 58.44 g/mol)

• Convert units and find intermediates, if needed

• Plug in and solve

• Make sure the answer is reasonable

What is the molarity of an aqueous solution containing 40.0 g of glucose (C6H12O6) in 1.5L of solution?

• Molarity Calculation

How many grams of NaOH are present in a 2.5 M solution?

• Molarity Calculation

• Dilution – process of decreasing the concentration of a solution by adding additional solvent

• Number of solute particles does not change, but the amount of solvent is increased

• Adding solvent increases the overall volume of the solution and decreases the concentration

• Inversely proportional relationship between concentration and volume of solvent in a solution

• Dilution

• Use the following equation when performing dilution calculations

• V1= volume of the original (stock) solution

• M1 = molarity of the original (stock) solution

• V2 = volume of the diluted solution

• M2 = molarity of the diluted solution

• Dilution Formula

• Dilution Calculation

• Write unknown and givens

M1 = 2.0 M

V1 = 1.5 L

V2 = 4.0 L

M2 = ?

• Identify the formula and rearrange, if needed

Ex) A 2.0 M solution of acid is diluted by increasing its volume from 1.5 L to 4.0 L. Calculate the molarity of the new solution.

• Convert units and find intermediates, if needed

• Plug in and solve

5. Make sure the answer is reasonable

What volume of a 3.00M KI stock solution would you use to make 0.300 L of a 1.25M KI solution?

• Dilution Calculation

• How many moles of solute are contained in 25 mL of 1.5MCa(OH)2?