Neanderthal and Emergence of Mind What it means to be Human. Readings: Scarre Chapter 1, Also: pages 55,59,74-75, and Chapter 4. 6 million years of human development in one class period. Comparative morphology Bipedalism Neanderthal evolution Dating technology.
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6 million years of human development in one class period
Paradigms of imagery: what is a Neanderthal?
Humanity: What is it?
Examines skeletal structures
Craniometrics: skull development
Humans do not descend from chimps, but we are distant cousins with an ancient common primate ancestor.
Leatoli (see Scarre 59)
The issue of bipedal locomotion.
In the old model: human ancestors evolved large brains, invented tools, then became bipedal as they came to depend on tools…the “smart ape hypothesis.”
Considerable evidence supports the hypothesis that bipedalism was well established 4.6 million years ago, before tools and large brains… upright ape hypothesis”
Sexual dimorphism in Australopithecus.
4 million years ago.
The oldest known manufactured tools are dated at 2.6-2 m.y.a.,
Found in various parts of Africa, and are grouped under the name Oldowan pebble tools, given them by the Leakeys in 1931.
The Pleistocene (2 m.y.a. to 10,000 B.P.) is the epoch of human life.
Lower Pleistocene (2 to 1 m.y.a.): Australopithecus and early Homo
Middle Pleistocene (1 m.y.a. to 130,000 B.P.): Homo erectus and archaic Homo sapiens
Upper Pleistocene (130,000 to 10,000 B.P.): modern Homo sapiens
Direct line model.
No longer considered valid.
H. sapien sapiens
H. sapiens (archaic)
Australopithicus (all species)
Branching tree model.
H. Sapiens sapiens
H. Sapiens (archaic)
H. Florensis (“hobbits”)
Cousin, no overlap
Not close enough to be same species, overlap
Key elements of cranial morphology
(minus lower jaw)
Neanderthal as frat boy run amok.
Brutish behavior considered Neanderthal.
Skeletal remains of child with Neanderthal traits, Portugal, 30,000 years old.
Neanderthal (?) child
Is this the face of a 30,000 year old Neanderthal/Human hybrid?