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### Elementary StatisticsPicturing the World

Data Classification

1.2 Data Types and Levels of Measurements

- Qualitative data – consist of values that describe qualities or non-numerical (i.e. brand names, letter grades)
- Quantitative data – consist of values representing counts or measurements (i.e. social security numbers, percentage grades)

1.2 Data Types and Levels of Measurements

- Four Levels of Measurement:
- Nominal – data consisting of names, labels, or categories only. The data are qualitative and can not be ranked or ordered
- Ordinal –qualitative or quantitative data that can be arranged in some order. It generally does not make sense to do computations with ordinal data.
- Interval – quantitative data which intervals are meaningful, but ratios are not. Data at this level have an arbitrary zero point.
- Ratio – quantitative data which both intervals and ratios are meaningful. Data at this level have a true zero point.

1.2 Data Types and Levels of Measurements

- Four Levels of Measurement:
- Nominal –Flavors, gender, type of car you drive, occupation
- Ordinal – Movie ratings ( 3 stars vs. 2 stars)
- Interval – temperature (55 degrees is more than 11 degrees, but 55 degrees is not necessarily 5 times hotter than 11 degrees because 0 does not represent no temperature)
- Ratio – distances (10 miles is twice 5 miles, and 0 miles means no distance), salary, age

1.2 Data Types and Levels of Measurements

The numbers on the shirts of a girl’s soccer team?

- Qualitative
- Quantitative

1.2 Data Types and Levels of Measurements

Student rankings of cafeteria food: excellent, good, fair, poor?

- Nominal
- Ordinal
- Interval
- Ratio

definite order

1.2 Data Types and Levels of Measurements

Weights of wrestlers?

- Nominal
- Ordinal
- Interval
- Ratio

true zero point

1.2 Data Types and Levels of Measurements

Calendar years of historic events, such as 1776, 1945, 2001?

- Nominal
- Ordinal
- Interval
- Ratio

because dates have no meaningful ratios and zero does not represent beginning of time

1.2 Data Types and Levels of Measurements

Temperatures on the Celsius scale?

- Nominal
- Ordinal
- Interval
- Ratio

because temperature has no meaningful ratios and zero degrees does not mean “no heat”

1.2 Data Types and Levels of Measurements

Runner’s times in the Boston Marathon?

- Nominal
- Ordinal
- Interval
- Ratio

true zero point

1.2 Data Types and Levels of Measurements

Data that can be classified according to color?

- Nominal
- Ordinal
- Interval
- Ratio

1.2 Data Types and Levels of Measurements

The final grades (A, B, C, D, and F) for students in a Probability & Statistics course?

- Nominal
- Ordinal
- Interval
- Ratio

1.2 Data Types and Levels of Measurements

The daily temperatures (in degrees Fahrenheit) on five randomly selected days are 22, 21, 31, 36, 21?

- Nominal
- Ordinal
- Interval
- Ratio

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