The new deal
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The New Deal. The New Deal. The United States during the 1930s. Debbie Donnelly, Kirkland H.S. and Jim Birney, Fife Education. Choose from. Background. The New Deal. Success or Failure?. Glossary. Web Sites. The Background – early 1930s.

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The new deal

The New Deal

The New Deal

The United States during the 1930s.

Debbie Donnelly, Kirkland H.S. and Jim Birney, Fife Education


Choose from

Choose from

Background

The New Deal

Success or Failure?

Glossary

Web Sites


The background early 1930s

The Background – early 1930s

During President Hoover’s government the Depression was in full swing. Unemployment was at 13 million, industries were closed, farms repossessed and the Dust Bowl was disastrous, banks shut down and the stock market had major difficulties.

People couldn’t find work anywhere so the government had to act.

People searched the newspapers for job adverts.


The background 2

The Background2

Hoover lost the 1933 presidential election and was succeeded by


The background 3

The Background 3

A man who was to become one of the most successful and well liked presidents of all time

Find out more about him.


The background

The Background

Roosevelt soon came to the conclusion that a massive change in the American way of life was needed to tackle the problems.

What was needed was a

“The nation asks for action and action now.”

New Deal

“Our greatest primary task is to put people to work.”


The new deal

Destitute

Alphabet Agencies

Industry

The New Deal

Farming

Stock Market

Banking

Find out more - Internet.


Banking

Banking

Banking Acts 1933 and 1935

  • Investors deposits insured

  • No gambling in securities

Fireside chats used to encourage people to put money back into banks

Bank Holiday

  • only secure banks allowed to re-open

New Deal


Stock market

Stock Market

Faith in Securities Act 1933

Securities Act 1934

  • Stricter control

  • Companies had to be honest

New Deal


Destitute

Destitute

Federal Emergency Relief Act ( F E R A )

$500 million to state governments to provide relief

Given as DOLE payments

Problems

Successes

New Deal


Destitute problems

Destitute - Problems

Many states penalised by dollar matching arrangements

People treated abominably by states who believed people should help themselves

Variations in relief provided – Georgia didn’t provide direct relief.

New Deal


Destitute successes

Destitute - Successes

Unique – a move away from laissez faire

Helped prevent starvation

Won political support for the Democrats from the poor

Lowered unemployment from 13 million to 6 million by 1941.

New Deal


Farming first agricultural adjustment act

Farming – First Agricultural Adjustment Act

Put up prices by creating artificial scarcity, ie killing livestock, ploughing up crops

This was considered by many to be unconstitutional and an extension of federal powers.

New Deal


Farming second agricultural adjustment act

Farming – Second Agricultural Adjustment Act

Insurance Scheme introduced.

Parity price fixed for main crops

Black sharecroppers still suffered.

New Deal


Industry

Industry

The New Deal introduced major breaks with traditional practices.

N.R.A.

Fair Labour Standards Act

Social Security Act

Wagner Act

New Deal


Industry n r a

Industry – N.R.A.

The National Recovery Administration made:-

  • Industry less cut throat in its operation

  • Owners introduce a minimum wage

  • Rules on the maximum working hours

Employers reacted differently from their workers.

New Deal


Industry n r a views

Industry – N.R.A. Views

Owners such as Henry Ford said:-

  • There would be an increase in monopolies

  • It was unconstitutional

The workers were pleased because:-

  • It gave them greater security and bargaining power

  • Elevated the position of the worker for the first time

New Deal


Industry fair labour standards act

Industry – Fair Labour Standards Act

Set new standards so that:-

  • Set a minimum wage of 40 cents an hour

  • Set a maximum working week of 40 hours

  • Banned child labour

New Deal


Industry wagner and social security acts

Industry – Wagner and Social Security Acts

The Wagner Act stated that workers could join a trade union

The Social Security Actsestablished a contributory insurance scheme.

New Deal


Alphabet agencies

Alphabet Agencies

Roosevelt created a number of major agencies known by their initials.

P.W.A.

C.C.C.

T.V.A.

Some opponents called them Alphabet Soup.

New Deal


Tennessee valley authority t v a

Tennessee Valley Authority T.V.A.

The river Tennessee was transformed by

  • Overturning years of deforestation and soil erosion by replanting and soil conservation.

  • The building of a series of dams and canals.

  • Flood prevention.

  • Hydro electric power for homes and business.

New Deal


Civilian conservation corps c c c

Civilian Conservation CorpsC.C.C.

The first New Deal project introduced in March 1933.

  • Created work for 2.5 million unemployed workers

  • Led to tree planting and soil conservation

  • Bridges, dams, nature trails and picnic areas were built

  • Blacks were segregated and women excluded

New Deal


Public works administration p w a

Public Works AdministrationP.W.A.

Laws passed in Congress.

  • It was slow to get underway.

  • Capital intensive rather than labour intensive – money to T.V.A. and other organisations.

  • Built hospitals and roads and was involved in slum clearance.

New Deal


Success or failure

Success or Failure?

  • Still 6 million out of work in 1941.

  • The numbers fell due to enlistment and rearmament in WW2.

  • Black people were segregated from white.

  • Women were excluded from the New Deal.

  • Tennessee benefited but many areas were still suffering.

  • Reduced unemployment by 7 million

  • Soil conservation schemes.

  • The Stock Market and banks recovered.

  • Transformed the Tennessee valley.

  • Roosevelt was re-elected.


Glossary

Glossary

Hoovervilleshanty towns built by homeless people during the Great Depression.

BlackOctober 29, 1929 when the Wall Street Tuesdaystock market collapsed.

DustThe years of drought which turned the Bowlsoil of Mid West farms to dust.


Web sites

Web Sites

Franklin D. Roosevelt http://www.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/educat33.html

The New Deal

http://newdeal.feri.org/


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