Munich
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Munich. Sep 1931 Japanese invasion of Manchuria. 1932-4 Failure of World Disarmament Conference. Timeline of appeasement. June 1935 Anglo-German Naval Agreement. Oct 1935 Italian invasion of Abyssinia. March 1936 German troops reoccupy the Rhineland. 1936-9 Spanish Civil War.

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Munich

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Munich

Munich


Munich

Sep 1931 Japanese invasion of Manchuria

1932-4 Failure of World Disarmament Conference

  • Timeline of appeasement

June 1935 Anglo-German Naval Agreement

Oct 1935 Italian invasion of Abyssinia

March 1936 German troops reoccupy the Rhineland

1936-9 Spanish Civil War

March 1938 Anschluss


Czechoslovakia

Czechoslovakia


Munich

  • Hitler financed and supported the Sudeten German Party under Conrad Henlein. With Hitler's backing the party became a force to be reckoned with in Czechoslovakia.

  • Hitler ordered Henlein to create a crisis in the country. The Sudeten Germans made increasingly bold demands from the government. When the demands could not be met they insisted that they were being persecuted.

  • In April 1938, Henlein announced his Karlsbad Programme for Sudeten self-government, and organised civil unrest.

  • In May 1938, Hitler moved his armies to the Czech border to intimidate the Czechoslovakian President, Benes.

  • In July 1938, Hitler promised Britain's Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain, that he would not invade Czechoslovakia if he were given control of the Sudetenland.

  • In September 1938, Hitler made an inflammatory speech against the Czechoslovakian President, Benes, at a Nazi rally at Nuremberg.

  • On the 12th September, the Sudeten Germans rioted and martial law was declared in Czechoslovakia.


Chamberlain takes the initiative

Prevailed upon Benes to give concessions to Hitler which would make German invasion unnecessary.

15th Sep Berchtesgaden Chamberlain met Hitler to offer Sudeten Germans be detached from CZ.

22nd Sep Godesberg Hitler increased his demands- more of Cz & German troops to enter Sudetenland. Benes said no & mobilised Czech army

Chamberlain takes the initiative


Munich

29th Sep Hitler invited Chamberlain & French PM Daladier .Mussolini’s plan was accepted. Sudetenland was given to Germany, & rest of Czech. was guaranteed.

Neither Russians or Czechoslovakians were invited.

If the Czechs refused they would receive no help from GB or France

Chamberlain returned home with “scrap of paper”

It promised GB & Germany “ would renounce warlike intentions against each other & would use consultation to deal with any other question that may concern our two countries”

Chamberlain declared that it was “peace for our time”

Churchill called it “ a total unmitigated defeat”


Evaluation

Many politicians felt Hitler could not be trusted

Hitler now appreciated how keen Chamberlain was to avoid war

Chamberlain did not appreciate hoe confident Hitler had become despite the escalation of Hitler’s demands at Godesberg

Czechoslovakia was crippled by loss of industry. Slovakia started to demand independence & the President was pressured to “request German help”

March 1939 German troops entered the rest of Czechoslovakia “by invitation”

Even Chamberlain felt this was going too far

Poland was now vulnerable

Evaluation


Poland

March 1939 Chamberlain assured Polish they would be safeguarded

April 1939 Hitler demanded return of Danzig

Seen by Poles as a prelude to invasion

Fortified by pledged GB support Poles refused

Distrust of USSR led to countries refusing to take advantage of offers of Russian help

24th August Russians grew tired & signed non-aggression pact with Germany

Evaluation

With Russia neutral Hitler was now convinced that France & GB would not intervene over Poland

1st Sep 1939 Hitler invades Poland

Chamberlain still attempted to find a negotiated solution and only offered Hitler an ultimatum when pressure mounted in Parliament

11AM 3RD SEPTEMBER it expired and Britain was at war with Germany

Poland


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