Wind energy for the eesp 2009
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Wind Energy for the EESP 2009. Two 800 Pound Gorillas. Climate Crisis. Oil Crisis. Two major issues that our students will be left to deal with:. Climate Crisis. Oil Crisis. Why Teach & Learn about Wind Power?. Wind is Fastest Growing Energy Source. US Installed Wind Capacity.

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Wind Energy for the EESP 2009

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Wind energy for the eesp 2009

Wind Energy for the EESP2009


Two 800 pound gorillas

Two 800 Pound Gorillas

Climate Crisis

Oil Crisis


Two major issues that our students will be left to deal with

Two major issues that our students will be left to deal with:

Climate Crisis

Oil Crisis


Why teach learn about wind power

Why Teach & Learnabout Wind Power?


Wind is fastest growing energy source

Wind is Fastest Growing Energy Source

US Installed Wind Capacity


And because of

And because of:

  • Rising Fuel Price and Uncertainty

  • Declining Wind Costs

  • Federal and State Policies & Incentives

  • Local Economic Development

  • Environmental Stewardship

  • Energy Security

  • Consumer Demand


What is kidwind

What is KidWind?

Aggie Energizers!

What is KidWind?

The KidWind Project is a team of teachers, students, engineers and practitioners exploring the science behind wind energy in classrooms around the US. Our goal is to introduce as many people as possible to the elegance of wind power through hands-on science activities which are challenging, engaging and teach basic science principles.


You can teach many learning standards

Aggie Energizers!

You can teach many Learning Standards

  • Concept #1 - Identify and explain the role of alternative energy sources and their conversion for use in society.

  • Concept #2 - Give examples of how energy can be transferred from one form to another.

  • Concept #3 - Differentiate between potential and kinetic energy. Identify situations where kinetic energy is transformed into potential energy and vice versa.

  • Concept #4 - Explain and utilize the steps of the engineering design process including the use of methods for representing solutions to a design problem. Recognize the parallel nature of the scientific method and the engineering design process.

  • Concept #5 - Identify and map aspects of the earth’s surface that would be applicable to engineering alternative energy conversion systems

  • Concept #10 - Explain the way in which an electromagnet can be used to convert forms of energy into electrical energy harnessed in a circuit

  • And MANY, MANY MORE…!


Typical wind lessons before kidwind

Aggie Energizers!

Typical Wind Lessons(Before KidWind)

  • Beaufort Scale

  • Pinwheels

  • Student Reports

  • Discussion Activity

    All very interesting but very little of the science and technology related to the current wind industry is presented.

    In fact most text books are pretty negative about the future of wind and misrepresent the technology miserably.


Elementary

Elementary

Engineering is Elementary

Wind Chimes

Wind Art

Building simple blades

Aggie Energizers!


Middle

Middle

Building Wind Turbines

Testing Blade Parameters

Assessing Wind Resource

Mathematics

Aggie Energizers!

balloon

~3m

streamers

Kite or balloon string


Secondary

Secondary

Advanced Blade Design

School Siting Projects

Data Analysis

Build Model (or full scale!) wind turbines

Aggie Energizers!


Basic words nomenclature

Basic Words (Nomenclature)

  • Wind Machine

    • Kinetic device used to capture the wind and put it to work

  • Wind System

    • Wind machine, tower, and all ancillary equipment

  • Windmill

    • Wind machine that generates mechanical motion (ie. water pumping, grain grinding, etc.)

  • Wind Turbine

    • A device that produces electricity from the kinetic energy of wind


Wind energy has been popular for a long time

Wind Energy has been Popular for a long time

The pilgrims arrived under the power of wind. Cape Cod was home to the first windmill in America. Wind helped fuel our country’s early economy.


Early windmill in afghanistan 900ad

Early “WINDMILL” in Afghanistan (900AD)


Dutch style windmills used for 100s of years across the world

Dutch Style Windmills used for 100s of years across the World


Water pumping windmills helped settle the american west

Water Pumping Windmills helped settle the American West


Early electric wind turbines helped electrify remote farms in the early 1900 s

Early Electric Wind Turbines helped Electrify Remote Farms in the early 1900’s


Birth of the modern wind turbine

Birth of the Modern Wind Turbine

California Wind Turbines 1980’s

Smith-Putnam

1.25 MW Turbine

Vermont, 1940's


Wind basics

Wind Basics


How wind works

How Wind Works

Wind energy is created by uneven heating of the earth’s surface.


Also geostrophic winds

Also, “Geostrophic” Winds


Land sea breezes

Land-Sea Breezes

Land-sea breezes created by temperature differentials

Winds also stronger near shore because of long unobstructed fetch

Sea breezes typically strongest in late afternoon


Valley breeze

Valley Breeze


Mountain breeze

Mountain Breeze


Mountain valley breezes

Mountain-Valley Breezes

Typically strongest in summer

Nighttime mountain breezes are stronger than daytime valley breezes

Mountain-valley winds can be enhanced by prevailing winds and convective flow between interior and coasts


Where is the wind

Where is the Wind?


Wind varies annually

Wind Varies Annually

Average annual wind speeds may vary as much as 25% from year to year


Wind varies seasonally

Wind Varies Seasonally


Wind varies daily

Wind Varies Daily

Wind varies daily not only because of weather but because of convective heating

Winds typically strongest in mid-late afternoon

Convective heating is less of an influence in winter, when storms dominate wind patterns


Wind varies instantaneously

Wind Varies Instantaneously


Who is using the wind

Who is using the Wind?


Here is germany s growth

Here is Germany’s growth:


Wind energy for the eesp 2009

Our own Wind Potential

Source: U.S. DOE


What is wind power used for

What is Wind Power Used For?


Wind turbine applications

Wind Turbine Applications

Generating electricity at Remote Sites

Producing electricity in parallel with utility

Water Pumping


Electricity for remote sites

Electricity for Remote Sites

North American Farms in 30’s & 40’s

Backcountry homes/cabins

Research Stations

Telecommunications

Boats & RV’s

Nomadic people

Cathodic protection


Hybrid systems rural electrification

Hybrid Systems & Rural Electrification


Private merchant electricity generation

Private Merchant Electricity Generation


Net metering

Net Metering


Where can we find wind power stations

Where can we find Wind Power Stations?


Wind farms

Wind Farms


Offshore wind

Offshore Wind


Types of wind turbines

Types of Wind Turbines

  • Medium

  • Village Power

  • Hybrid Systems

  • Distributed Power

  • $80,000-$500,000

  • 20-150 ft. diameter

  • 10-250 kW

  • Small

  • Homes & Farms

  • Remote Applications

  • $5,000-$50,000+

  • 2-20 ft. diameter

  • 10 kW

  • Large (250 kW – 5 MW)

  • Central Station Wind Farms

  • Distributed Power

  • $750,000 - $3,000,000 (per turbine)

  • 150 – 300 ft. diameter


Small medium turbines

Micro

<4 ft rotor diameter

Mini / Cabin-size

3-10 ft rotor diameter

Household

13-33 ft rotor diameter

Medium

33-200 ft rotor diameter

Small & Medium Turbines


Medium large wind turbines

Medium & Large Wind Turbines

  • Hub height :

    • 160’ - 260’

  • Blade tip height:

    • 240’ - 390’


Wind turbine perspective

Workers

Blade

112’ long

Nacelle

56 tons

Tower

3 sections

Wind Turbine Perspective


Wide sweep

231 ft.

211 ft.

Wide Sweep


Turbine technology

Turbine Technology


Orientation

Orientation

Turbines can be categorized into two overarching classes based on the orientation of the rotor

Vertical AxisHorizontal Axis


Lift vs drag vertical axis wind turbines

Lift vs Drag: Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

Lift Device “Darrieus”

  • Low solidity, aerofoil blades

  • More efficient than drag device

    Drag Device “Savonius”

  • High solidity, cup shapes are pushed by the wind

  • At best can capture only 15% of wind energy


Vawt s have not been commercially successful yet

VAWT’s have not been commercially successful, yet…

Every few years a new company comes along promising a revolutionary breakthrough in wind turbine design that is low cost, outperforms anything else on the market, and overcomes all of the previous problems with VAWT’s. They can also usually be installed on a roof or in a city where wind is poor.

WindStor

Mag-Wind

WindTree

Wind Wandler


Horizontal axis wind turbines

Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines

  • Rotors are usually Up-wind of tower

  • Some machines have down-wind rotors, but only commercially available ones are small turbines


It all starts with blade design

It all starts with Blade Design


Airfoil nomenclature w ind turbines use the same aerodynamic principals as aircraft

Airfoil Nomenclaturewind turbines use the same aerodynamic principals as aircraft


Pitch control vs stall control

Pitch Control vs. Stall Control

Pitch Control

Blades rotate out of the wind when wind speed becomes too great

Stall Control

Blades are at a fixed pitch that starts to stall when wind speed is too great

Pitch can be adjusted for particular location’s wind regime

Active Stall Control

Many larger turbines today have active pitch control that turns the blades towards stall when wind speeds are too great


Inside a wind turbine

Inside a Wind Turbine


Active passive yaw

Active & Passive Yaw

  • Active Yaw (all medium & large turbines produced today, & some small turbines from Europe)

    • Anemometer on nacelle tells controller which way to point rotor into the wind

    • Yaw drive turns gears to point rotor into wind

  • Passive Yaw (Most small turbines)

    • Wind forces alone direct rotor

      • Tail vanes

      • Downwind turbines


Environmental other concerns about wind

Environmental & Other Concerns about Wind


Some concerns about wind that can be addressed with proper information

Some Concerns about Wind(that can be addressed with proper information)

  • Visual / Aesthetic

  • Property Values

  • Noise

  • Birds

  • Safety

  • Are benefits real?


Visual impact

Visual Impact

  • Many people think wind turbines are graceful, kinetic sculptures.”

  • People who have never seen modern wind turbines in person are more likely to think they will be an eyesore.

  • There are always people who complain about visual impacts before a project is built.

  • Approval rates are higher after projects are built and in areas that already have turbines.


Similar structures

Similar Structures

  • Utility Poles

  • Radio Towers

  • Cell Phone Towers

  • Water Towers


Similar structures1

Similar Structures

  • Utility Poles

  • Radio Towers

  • Cell Phone Towers

  • Water Towers


Approval rates increase with actual exposure to technology

Approval Rates Increase with Actual Exposure to Technology


What about the birds

What about the birds?

  • Wind Turbines kill very few birds compared to other human activities

  • Estimates are ~1-2 bird deaths per turbine per year

  • Global warming is the single biggest threat to wildlife today

  • A recent study in Nature found that more than 1/3 of species worldwide will be extinct by 2050 if global warming trends continue

“As responsible citizens, stewards, and advocates, Mass Audubon strongly supports public policies and private projects that advance energy conservation and efficiency. We also support the development of wind farms, as a renewable energy source to offset the effects of global climate change produced by the burning of fossil fuels.” Sept. 21, 2004


Wind energy for the eesp 2009

Bird deaths in perspective


Turbines are noisy right

Turbines are noisy, right?

  • Older wind turbines are louder. Newer machines turn slower and are much quieter

  • It is possible to hold a quiet conversation at the base of a modern wind turbine

  • Go to MMA or Hull and listen!


Do wind farms impact tourism and property values

Do wind farms impact tourism and property values?

Yes -- Positively.

There is NO evidence from

existing wind facilities anywhere in the world (including locations very similar to Cape Cod that have offshore turbines) that wind turbines have a negative impact on property values or tourism.

In fact, the majority of studies conducted after wind farms have been built show that both tourism and property values increase!


Are wind turbines unsafe

Are Wind Turbines Unsafe?

  • Not a single passerby has ever been injured by wind turbines

  • There have been no collisions with turbines by any type of vehicle

  • Ice shedding is very rare

    • When it occurs Ice falls near base of turbine -- not thrown far distances

  • Only one member of the public has been killed by a wind turbine (a German parachutist on her first solo jump)

Wind turbine at Exhibition Place, Downtown Toronto


Are the benefits real

Are the benefits real?

  • Back up Power?

    • Turbines do not require any new back up generation or spinning reserves.

  • Emission reductions?

    • Wind energy is accepted on the grid before any other source when it is available, offsetting the need for more polluting sources. Each MWh of wind is one less MWh of electricity from a fossil fuel plant

  • Economics?

    • Wind provides long-term price stability and is competitive with today’s energy costs. Economic benefit is realized by whoever buys (and sells) the power.


Power in the wind

Power in the Wind


Kinetic energy in the wind

Kinetic Energy in the Wind

Kinetic Energy = Work = ½mV2

Where:

M= mass of moving object

V = velocity of moving object

What is the mass of moving air?

= density (ρ) x volume (Area x distance)

= ρ x A x d

= (kg/m3) (m2) (m)

= kg

A

V

d


Calculation of wind power

Calculation of Wind Power

  • Power in the wind

    • = ½  A V3

    • Effect of air density, 

    • Effect of swept area, A

    • Effect of wind speed, V

R

Swept Area: A = πR2 Area of the circle swept by the rotor (m2).


Importance of rotor diameter

Importance of Rotor Diameter

Swept are is proportional to square of the rotor diameter

20% increase in rotor diameter increases area by 44%

Doubling diameter increases area 4 times


Importance of wind speed

Importance of Wind Speed

No other factor is more important to the amount of power available in the wind than the speed of the wind

Power is a cubic function of wind speed

V X V X V

20% increase in wind speed means 73% more power

Doubling wind speed means 8 times more power


Importance of distribution

Importance of Distribution

“Because speed distribution plays such an important role in determining power, it’s always preferable to use an actual measured distribution.”

Paul Gipe, Wind Power


Wind speed height higher means stronger smoother wind

Wind Speed & HeightHigher means stronger, smoother wind


Micro siting

“Micro-Siting”


Turbulence

Turbulence

Top View

Side View


Economics jobs

Economics & Jobs


There are lots of exciting career possibilities

There are lots of exciting career possibilities

Developers

Turbine Technicians

Manufacturing

Sales & Marketing

Utility Engineers

Geophysical Engineers

Concrete/Structural Engineering

Turbine Engineering (ME/EE/Aerospace)

Site/Civil Engineering

Microelectronic/Computer Programming

Business Expertise (Financial)

Legal Expertise

Meteorologists


Does small wind energy pay

Does Small Wind Energy Pay?

  • Does wind energy have to pay for itself?

    • We often buy items of equivalent cost that provide no monetary value, and often cost money to use

    • Off grid customers are looking for least cost option (connect to grid, diesel generator, solar/wind hybrid, etc..)

  • Comparing initial costs is not useful

    • Wind has no fuel cost

    • Generators are cheaper per kW, but not necessarily cheaper at producing energy over the entire life

  • “You’re paying for a wind machine whether you want to or not, every time you mail your check to the utility.” – Mike Bergey


Economic factors

Economic Factors

  • Installed Cost

  • Operation & Maintenance

    • Typically ~ 1 cent per kWh

  • Financing

    • (equivalent to lost interest if paying cash)

  • Insurance

  • Taxes

  • Revenues: Savings & Sales

    • Savings worth more value because not taxed

    • Sales may generate taxable income

    • REC’s may be able to be sold

    • Must account for rising cost of electricity

      • as it compares to inflation


Economic incentives

Economic Incentives

  • Tax Credits

  • Tax Exemptions

  • Rebates

  • Production Incentives & Rebates

  • Accelerated Depreciation

  • Grants & Loans

  • Net Metering Arrangements

  • www.dsireusa.org

  • www.masstech.org


Growing economies of scale

Growing Economies of Scale

1981

1985

1990

1996

1999

2001

Rotor (Meter)

10

17

27

40

50

70

KW

25

100

225

550

750

1,500

Total Cost

$65,000

$165,000

$300,000

$580,000

$730,000

$1,300,000

Cost/kW

$2,600

$1,650

$1,333

$1,050

$950

$790

MWh

45

220

550

1,480

2,200

5,600

Larger turbines are more cost effective per kW.

But the value of each kWh depends on whether it is used behind the meter (12-15 ¢/kWh )or sold to the grid (3-5¢/kWh).


Wind energy for the eesp 2009

Cape Cod Regional Technical School

African Windpower AWP 3.6 Turbine (installed June 2005)

  • 1.5 kW capacity

  • ~250-350 kWh/month

    (about half of an average household’s demand)

    127 foot, tilt-up, guy-wired tower

    SMA WindyBoy Inverter

    Installed as an educational tool

  • (It’s a demonstration of small wind energy technology, not necessarily an example of what to do)


Wind energy for the eesp 2009

Upper Cape Tech

Aircon 10 turbine

  • 10 kW capacity

  • ~1250-1750 kWh/month

    (2½ - 3 times an average household’s demand)

    Freestanding, tubular, counterbalancing tower

    2 SMA WindyBoy Inverters


Wind energy for the eesp 2009

* Rebate structure improved from Cape Tech to UCT example; rebate will be different for other applications, and additional incentives may be available.

--All prices are provided for example only – actual prices may vary--


Wind energy for the eesp 2009

Thanks to

The KidWind Project

www.kidwind.org

Joe Rand

[email protected]


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