Robert E. Lee surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox
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Robert E. Lee surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox. Artist Thomas Nast contrasted this image, captioned “ Pardon, ” of Confederate politicians and generals applying for pardons, which might give them the right to vote and hold office. . . .

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Robert E. Lee surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox

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Robert e lee surrenders to ulysses s grant at appomattox

Robert E. Lee surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox


Robert e lee surrenders to ulysses s grant at appomattox

Artist Thomas Nast contrasted this image, captioned “Pardon,” of Confederate politicians and generals applying for pardons, which might give them the right to vote and hold office. . . .

with this image, entitled “Franchise,” of a crippled African American Union veteran, deserving of recognition by the Federal Government for his heroism and sacrifice, and deserving the right to vote


Robert e lee surrenders to ulysses s grant at appomattox

Thomas Nast’s depiction of the African American victim sacrificed upon the altar of the “white man’s government” and sectional reunion and reconciliation


Robert e lee surrenders to ulysses s grant at appomattox

Two Members of the Ku Klux Klan in Disguise, 1868


Robert e lee surrenders to ulysses s grant at appomattox

Thomas Nast’s 1874 cartoon, “The New Alabama”; the flag reads, “This is a White Man’s Government”


Robert e lee surrenders to ulysses s grant at appomattox

caption reads: “Colored Rule in a Reconstructed (?) State”:

“The members call each other thieves, liars, rascals, and cowards.”

Columbia: “You are Aping the lowest Whites. If you disgrace your Race in this way you had better take Back Seats.”


Robert e lee surrenders to ulysses s grant at appomattox

The “patchwork quilt” of Reconstruction and Redemption


Robert e lee surrenders to ulysses s grant at appomattox

Republican Rutherford B. Hayes

Democrat Samuel Tilden

Election 2000

1876 Election


Robert e lee surrenders to ulysses s grant at appomattox

The contested presidential election of 1876


Robert e lee surrenders to ulysses s grant at appomattox

D.W. Griffith’s The Birth of a Nation, 1915 release

Griffith’s tremendously popular film set the tone for a wave of motion pictures that denigrated blacks, even if that denigration usually comes through mockery. Birth of a Nation directly contributed to the reemergence of the defunct Ku Klux Klan in the late 1910s, and well into the Civil Rights struggle white supremacists continued to hail the film’s racist iconography.


Robert e lee surrenders to ulysses s grant at appomattox

“the mulatto Gus,” the would-be rapist of a white woman in Birth of a Nation

Screen heavy Walter Long, in blackface, was cast as "Gus,"one of the most controversial castings and performances in cinema history.


Robert e lee surrenders to ulysses s grant at appomattox

Abolitionist Congressman, the Hon. Austin Stoneman (Ralph Lewis, in blackface),spearheaded the Reconstruction era in D.W. Griffith’s vision of the post-Civil War South.


Robert e lee surrenders to ulysses s grant at appomattox

“The triumphant march of the Klan, Lillian Gish and Miriam Cooper at its head,”a cinematic moment that audiences would never forget.


Robert e lee surrenders to ulysses s grant at appomattox

Missing Revolution in Economic Relations

  • THREE (?) PILLARS OF WHITE SUPREMACY?

  • MOB VIOLENCE

  • SEGREGATION

  • DISFRANCHISEMENT


Robert e lee surrenders to ulysses s grant at appomattox

I. MOB VIOLENCE

I.“Carnival of Fury”: Sexual Mythology, Lynching, Mob Violence, and African American Resistance in the New South

A.the “epidemic of rape” that never was

B.Ida Wells-Barnett’s “crusade” against the “old threadbare lie”


Robert e lee surrenders to ulysses s grant at appomattox

Ida B. Wells-Barnett, early crusader against lynching:

“Nobody in this section of the country believes the old threadbare lie that Negro men rape white women”


Robert e lee surrenders to ulysses s grant at appomattox

  • SEGREGATION

  • The Supreme Court “Jumps Jim Crow”:

  • [Homer] Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) and the Legitimization of Segregation

  • “green light” for segregation and other forms of racial proscription

  • •Plessy serves as the legal / constitutional “cement” for segregation; enshrines legal and cultural “legitimacy” of Jim Crow


Robert e lee surrenders to ulysses s grant at appomattox

III.DISFRANCHISEMENT

A.white Democrats vow never again to have poor blacks and whites join forces

B.“race-blind” disfranchisement mechanisms:

1.poll tax

2.literacy test

3.grandfather clause


Robert e lee surrenders to ulysses s grant at appomattox

Racial stereotypes of black politicians in 1898

vs. Reconstruction depictions

Racial stereotypes of black politicians in 1874


Robert e lee surrenders to ulysses s grant at appomattox

Editorial Cartoon from the North Carolina

White Supremacy Campaign of 1898


Robert e lee surrenders to ulysses s grant at appomattox

Illustration of the Wilmington “race riot” of 1898 as it did not transpire; blacks were the victims of white violence, not the authors of violence


Robert e lee surrenders to ulysses s grant at appomattox

  • THREE (?) PILLARS OF WHITE SUPREMACY?

  • MOB VIOLENCE

  • SEGREGATION

  • DISFRANCHISEMENT

A FOURTH PILLAR OF WHITE SUPREMACY?


Robert e lee surrenders to ulysses s grant at appomattox

“a missing revolution in economic relations”


Robert e lee surrenders to ulysses s grant at appomattox

One long term consequence of the Black Codes was the “racialization” of the South’s criminal justice system. . . .


Robert e lee surrenders to ulysses s grant at appomattox

Booker T. Washington

the “Wizard of Tuskegee” and “author” of the

“Atlanta Compromise” (1895)


Robert e lee surrenders to ulysses s grant at appomattox

W.E.B. Du Bois

one of the founders of the NAACP, historian, editorialist, and advocate of “persistent, manly agitation”


Robert e lee surrenders to ulysses s grant at appomattox

Sign indicating demarcation of segregated seating on Birmingham city bus during the Jim Crow era


Robert e lee surrenders to ulysses s grant at appomattox

Sign indicating demarcation of segregated seating on Birmingham city bus during the Jim Crow era


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