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BASICS OF THE HEART. Katee Beaudry MS 2 – Penn State University College of Medicine [email protected] Learning Objectives. To understand the basic anatomy of the heart. To understand blood flow through the heart and lungs. To understand the basic physiology of the heart.

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basics of the heart

BASICS OF THE HEART

Katee Beaudry

MS 2 – Penn State University College of Medicine

[email protected]

learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • To understand the basic anatomy of the heart.
  • To understand blood flow through the heart and lungs.
  • To understand the basic physiology of the heart.
  • To understand the basics of heart murmurs.
vocabulary
Vocabulary
  • Oxygenated blood – blood that has a lot of oxygen in it.
  • Deoxygenated blood – blood that does not have a lot of oxygen in it.
  • Systole – contraction
  • Diastole – relaxation
  • Arteries – carry oxygenated blood to tissues
  • Veins – carry deoxygenated blood from tissues
  • EXCEPTION – the pulmonary circulation
right atrium
Right Atrium
  • Blood from the upper extremities and head empties into the right atrium through the Superior Vena Cava (SVC).
  • Blood from the lower extremities and abdomen empties into the right atrium through the Inferior Vena Cava (IVC).
  • Blood passes through the tricuspid valve to enter the right ventricle.
right ventricle
Right Ventricle
  • Blood enters the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve.
  • Blood leaves the right ventricle through the pulmonary semi-lunar valve and enters the pulmonary trunk
pulmonary circulation
Pulmonary Circulation
  • The pulmonary trunk splits into the left and right pulmonary arteries.
  • These carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
  • The blood then passes through pulmonary capillaries, where the blood is oxygenated.
  • Oxygenated blood is carried back to the heart by 4 pulmonary veins.
left atrium
Left Atrium
  • Oxygenated blood from the lungs enters the left ventricle via the pulmonary veins.
  • Blood passes through the bicuspid valve and enters the left ventricle.
left ventricle
Left Ventricle
  • Once oxygenated blood passes through the bicuspid valve it enters the left ventricle.
  • Oxygenated blood leaves the left ventricle through the aortic semi-lunar valve and enters the aorta.
  • The aorta takes oxygenated blood to the rest of the body.
blood flow review
Blood Flow Review
  • SVC and IVC to right atrium.
  • Tricuspid valve
  • Right ventricle
  • Pulmonary semi-lunar valve
  • Pulmonary Trunk
  • Pulmonary arteries
  • Pulmonary capillaries
  • Pulmonary veins
  • Left atrium
  • Bicuspid valve
  • Left ventricle
  • Aortic semi-lunar valve
  • Aorta
heart wall and pericardium
HEART WALL

Endocardium – in contact with blood

Myocardium – heart muscle (cardiac muscle)

Epicardium – most outer layer

PERICARDIUM

Sac surrounding the heart.

Visceral (on the heart) and parietal layers

Secretes pericardial fluid to lubricate the heart.

Heart Wall and Pericardium
septa
Septa
  • Septa separate the right and left sides of the heart to make sure that oxygenated and deoxygenated blood do not mix.
  • Atrial Septum – separates the right and left atria (contains the fossa ovalis).
  • Ventricular Septum – separates the right and left ventricles.
heart valves
Heart Valves
  • Review:
    • Tricuspid valve – between the right atrium and right ventricle.
    • Pulmonary semi-lunar valve – between the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk.
    • Bicuspid valve – between the left atrium and left ventricle.
    • Aortic semi-lunar valve – between the left ventricle and aorta
function of heart valves
Function of Heart Valves
  • Valves prevent the backflow of blood in the heart.
  • The AV valves prevent blood from moving from the ventricles back into the atria.
  • The semi-lunar valves prevent blood from moving from arteries (aorta and pulmonary trunk) back into the ventricle.
1 st heart sound
1st Heart Sound
  • 1st Heart Sound – referred to as “Lubb”
    • This sound occurs during ventricular systole (contraction).
      • The ventricles contract (generating pressure in the ventricles), which pushes open the semi-lunar valves.
      • When the ventricles contract, the AV (tricuspid and bicuspid) valves close due to the increased pressure in the ventricles as opposed to the atria.
      • The closing of the AV valves results in blood hitting them, causing the first heart sound.
2 nd heart sound
2nd Heart Sound
  • 2nd Heart Sound – referred to as “Dupp”
    • This sound occurs during ventricular diastole (relaxation).
    • When the ventricles relax, the pressure in the arteries is greater than that in the ventricles, and the semi-lunar valves close.
    • When the semi-lunar valves close, blood hits them causing the characteristic “Dupp” sound.
murmurs
Murmurs
  • Murmurs are “extra” heart sounds heard.
  • They are due to insufficiencies in the heart valves causing leakage of blood.
  • There are two types of murmurs:
    • Sysolic murmurs
    • Diastolic murmurs
systolic murmurs
Systolic Murmurs
  • These murmurs occur during ventricular contraction.
  • The AV (tricuspid or bicuspid) valves are leaky and SOME blood flows backward, from the ventricles to the atria.
  • Lubb swooooosh Dupp
diastolic murmurs
Diastolic Murmurs
  • These “extra” heart sounds occur during ventricular relaxation.
  • The semi-lunar valves are leaky and allow SOME blood to flow backwards, from the artery (aorta or pulmonary trunk) back into the ventricle.
  • Lubb Dupp Swooooooosh
cardiac physiology
Cardiac Physiology
  • The job of the heart is to move blood through the body.
  • Moves deoxygenated blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen and pushes oxygenated blood to the rest of the body tissues.
cardiac pathology
Cardiac Pathology
  • If there is a problem involving blood flow through the heart, less oxygen will get to the tissues that desperately need it.
  • The cardiovascular system will respond by increasing the pulse, blood pressure, respiratory rate, etc.
  • The individual will feel tired, have a lack of energy and will be short of breath with minimal exertion.
clinical pearl
How to listen to someones heart….

All People Take Money

A – aortic semi-lunar valve

P – Pulmonic semi-lunar valve

T – tricuspid valve

M – mitral (bicuspid) valve

Clinical Pearl!
so how well do you know the heart
So, How Well Do You Know the Heart?
  • What artery carries deoxygenated blood?
  • What structures separate the right and left sides of the heart?
  • When blood leaves the right side of the heart, where does it go?
  • What causes a heart murmur?
  • What does a systolic murmur sound like?
references
References
  • Lilly, L.S. Pathophysiology of heart disease. Lippincott Williams & Wolters Kluwer Business, 2007. P.39-43.
  • Martini, F.H. Fundamentals of anatomy and physiology. Pearson Benjamin Cummings. 2004. P. 682-716.
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