Basics of the heart
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 24

BASICS OF THE HEART PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 53 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

BASICS OF THE HEART. Katee Beaudry MS 2 – Penn State University College of Medicine [email protected] Learning Objectives. To understand the basic anatomy of the heart. To understand blood flow through the heart and lungs. To understand the basic physiology of the heart.

Download Presentation

BASICS OF THE HEART

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Basics of the heart

BASICS OF THE HEART

Katee Beaudry

MS 2 – Penn State University College of Medicine

[email protected]


Learning objectives

Learning Objectives

  • To understand the basic anatomy of the heart.

  • To understand blood flow through the heart and lungs.

  • To understand the basic physiology of the heart.

  • To understand the basics of heart murmurs.


Vocabulary

Vocabulary

  • Oxygenated blood – blood that has a lot of oxygen in it.

  • Deoxygenated blood – blood that does not have a lot of oxygen in it.

  • Systole – contraction

  • Diastole – relaxation

  • Arteries – carry oxygenated blood to tissues

  • Veins – carry deoxygenated blood from tissues

  • EXCEPTION – the pulmonary circulation


Heart anatomy

HEART ANATOMY


Right atrium

Right Atrium

  • Blood from the upper extremities and head empties into the right atrium through the Superior Vena Cava (SVC).

  • Blood from the lower extremities and abdomen empties into the right atrium through the Inferior Vena Cava (IVC).

  • Blood passes through the tricuspid valve to enter the right ventricle.


Right ventricle

Right Ventricle

  • Blood enters the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve.

  • Blood leaves the right ventricle through the pulmonary semi-lunar valve and enters the pulmonary trunk


Pulmonary circulation

Pulmonary Circulation

  • The pulmonary trunk splits into the left and right pulmonary arteries.

  • These carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs.

  • The blood then passes through pulmonary capillaries, where the blood is oxygenated.

  • Oxygenated blood is carried back to the heart by 4 pulmonary veins.


Left atrium

Left Atrium

  • Oxygenated blood from the lungs enters the left ventricle via the pulmonary veins.

  • Blood passes through the bicuspid valve and enters the left ventricle.


Left ventricle

Left Ventricle

  • Once oxygenated blood passes through the bicuspid valve it enters the left ventricle.

  • Oxygenated blood leaves the left ventricle through the aortic semi-lunar valve and enters the aorta.

  • The aorta takes oxygenated blood to the rest of the body.


Blood flow review

Blood Flow Review

  • SVC and IVC to right atrium.

  • Tricuspid valve

  • Right ventricle

  • Pulmonary semi-lunar valve

  • Pulmonary Trunk

  • Pulmonary arteries

  • Pulmonary capillaries

  • Pulmonary veins

  • Left atrium

  • Bicuspid valve

  • Left ventricle

  • Aortic semi-lunar valve

  • Aorta


Heart wall and pericardium

HEART WALL

Endocardium – in contact with blood

Myocardium – heart muscle (cardiac muscle)

Epicardium – most outer layer

PERICARDIUM

Sac surrounding the heart.

Visceral (on the heart) and parietal layers

Secretes pericardial fluid to lubricate the heart.

Heart Wall and Pericardium


Septa

Septa

  • Septa separate the right and left sides of the heart to make sure that oxygenated and deoxygenated blood do not mix.

  • Atrial Septum – separates the right and left atria (contains the fossa ovalis).

  • Ventricular Septum – separates the right and left ventricles.


Heart valves

Heart Valves

  • Review:

    • Tricuspid valve – between the right atrium and right ventricle.

    • Pulmonary semi-lunar valve – between the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk.

    • Bicuspid valve – between the left atrium and left ventricle.

    • Aortic semi-lunar valve – between the left ventricle and aorta


Function of heart valves

Function of Heart Valves

  • Valves prevent the backflow of blood in the heart.

  • The AV valves prevent blood from moving from the ventricles back into the atria.

  • The semi-lunar valves prevent blood from moving from arteries (aorta and pulmonary trunk) back into the ventricle.


1 st heart sound

1st Heart Sound

  • 1st Heart Sound – referred to as “Lubb”

    • This sound occurs during ventricular systole (contraction).

      • The ventricles contract (generating pressure in the ventricles), which pushes open the semi-lunar valves.

      • When the ventricles contract, the AV (tricuspid and bicuspid) valves close due to the increased pressure in the ventricles as opposed to the atria.

      • The closing of the AV valves results in blood hitting them, causing the first heart sound.


2 nd heart sound

2nd Heart Sound

  • 2nd Heart Sound – referred to as “Dupp”

    • This sound occurs during ventricular diastole (relaxation).

    • When the ventricles relax, the pressure in the arteries is greater than that in the ventricles, and the semi-lunar valves close.

    • When the semi-lunar valves close, blood hits them causing the characteristic “Dupp” sound.


Murmurs

Murmurs

  • Murmurs are “extra” heart sounds heard.

  • They are due to insufficiencies in the heart valves causing leakage of blood.

  • There are two types of murmurs:

    • Sysolic murmurs

    • Diastolic murmurs


Systolic murmurs

Systolic Murmurs

  • These murmurs occur during ventricular contraction.

  • The AV (tricuspid or bicuspid) valves are leaky and SOME blood flows backward, from the ventricles to the atria.

  • Lubb swooooosh Dupp


Diastolic murmurs

Diastolic Murmurs

  • These “extra” heart sounds occur during ventricular relaxation.

  • The semi-lunar valves are leaky and allow SOME blood to flow backwards, from the artery (aorta or pulmonary trunk) back into the ventricle.

  • Lubb Dupp Swooooooosh


Cardiac physiology

Cardiac Physiology

  • The job of the heart is to move blood through the body.

  • Moves deoxygenated blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen and pushes oxygenated blood to the rest of the body tissues.


Cardiac pathology

Cardiac Pathology

  • If there is a problem involving blood flow through the heart, less oxygen will get to the tissues that desperately need it.

  • The cardiovascular system will respond by increasing the pulse, blood pressure, respiratory rate, etc.

  • The individual will feel tired, have a lack of energy and will be short of breath with minimal exertion.


Clinical pearl

How to listen to someones heart….

All People Take Money

A – aortic semi-lunar valve

P – Pulmonic semi-lunar valve

T – tricuspid valve

M – mitral (bicuspid) valve

Clinical Pearl!


So how well do you know the heart

So, How Well Do You Know the Heart?

  • What artery carries deoxygenated blood?

  • What structures separate the right and left sides of the heart?

  • When blood leaves the right side of the heart, where does it go?

  • What causes a heart murmur?

  • What does a systolic murmur sound like?


References

References

  • Lilly, L.S. Pathophysiology of heart disease. Lippincott Williams & Wolters Kluwer Business, 2007. P.39-43.

  • Martini, F.H. Fundamentals of anatomy and physiology. Pearson Benjamin Cummings. 2004. P. 682-716.


  • Login