An introduction to bluetooth technology
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An Introduction to BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY. SUBMITTED BY: RAJESH KUMAR MISHRA ELEX &COMM ENGG. CONTENT. Overview of Bluetooth History The Bluetooth Specifications Typical Bluetooth Scenario Protocols Profiles Security

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An Introduction to BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY

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An introduction to bluetooth technology

An Introduction to BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY

SUBMITTED BY:

RAJESH KUMAR MISHRA

ELEX &COMM ENGG


Content

CONTENT

  • Overview of Bluetooth History

  • The Bluetooth Specifications

  • Typical Bluetooth Scenario

  • Protocols

  • Profiles

  • Security

  • Comparison with other technologies

  • Future of Bluetooth

  • Summary


What is bluetooth

What is Bluetooth?

  • “Bluetooth wireless technology is an open specification for a low-cost, low-power, short-range radio technology for ad-hoc wireless communication of voice and data anywhere in the world.”

One of the first modules (Ericsson)

A recent module


Ultimate headset

Ultimate Headset


Cordless computer

Cordless Computer


Bluetooth goals vision

Bluetooth Goals & Vision

  • Originally conceived as a cable replacement technology

  • Short-Range Wireless Solutions

  • Open Specification

  • Voice and Data Capability

  • Worldwide Usability

  • Other usage models began to develop:

    • Personal Area Network (PAN)

    • Ad-hoc networks

    • Data/voice access points

    • Wireless telematics


Overview of bluetooth history

Overview of Bluetooth History

  • What is Bluetooth?

    • Bluetooth is a short-range wireless communications technology.

  • Why this name?

    • It was taken from the 10th century Danish King Harald Blatand who unified Denmark and Norway.

  • When does it appear?

    • 1994 – Ericsson study on a wireless technology to link mobile phones & accessories.

    • 5 companies joined to form the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) in 1998.

    • First specification released in July 1999.


Timeline

Timeline

  • 1994 : Ericsson study complete / vision

  • 1995 : Engineering work begins

  • 1997 : Intel agrees to collaborate

  • 1998 : Bluetooth SIG formed: Ericsson, Intel, IBM, Nokia & Toshiba

  • 1999 : Bluetooth Specification 1.0A

    SIG promoter group expanded: 3Com, Lucent, Microsoft & Motorola

  • 2000 : Bluetooth Specification 1.0B, 2000+ adopters

  • 2001 : First retail products released, Specification 1.1

  • 2003 : Bluetooth Specification 1.2

  • 2005 : Bluetooth Specification 2.0 (?)


Special interest group

Special Interest Group


Technical features

Technical features


Bluetooth fhss

Bluetooth FHSS

  • Employs frequency hopping spread spectrum

  • Reduce interference with other devices

  • Pseudorandom hopping

  • 1600 hops/sec- time slot is defined as 625 microseconds

  • Packet 1-5 time slots long


Time division duplex scheme

Time-Division Duplex Scheme

  • Channel is divided into consecutive slots (each 625 s)

  • One packet can be transmitted per slot

  • Subsequent slots are alternatively used for transmitting and receiving

    • Strict alternation of slots between the master and the slaves

    • Master can send packets to a slave only in EVEN slots

    • Slave can send packets to the master only in the ODD slots


Classification

Classification

  • Classification of devices on the basis of Power dissipated & corresponding maximum Range.


Typical bluetooth scenario

m

s

m

s

s

s

Typical Bluetooth Scenario

  • Bluetooth will support wireless point-to-point and point-to-multipoint (broadcast) between devices in a piconet.

  • Point to Point Link

    • Master - slave relationship

    • Bluetooth devices can function as masters or slaves

  • Piconet

    • It is the network formed by a Master and one or more slaves (max 7)

    • Each piconet is defined by a different hopping channel to which users synchronize to

    • Each piconet has max capacity (1 Mbps)


Piconet structure

Master

Active Slave

Parked Slave

Standby

Piconet Structure

  • All devices in piconet hop together.

  • Master’s ID and master’s clock determines frequency hopping sequence & phase.


Ad hoc network the scatternet

Ad-hoc Network – the Scatternet

  • Inter-piconet communication

  • Up to 10 piconets in a scatternet

  • Multiple piconets can operate within same physical space

  • This is an ad-hoc, peer to peer (P2P) network


Bluetooth protocol stack

Bluetooth Protocol Stack


Baseband

Baseband


Baseband1

Baseband

  • Addressing

    • Bluetooth device address (BD_ADDR)

      • 48 bit IEEE MAC address

  • Active Member address (AM_ADDR)

    • 3 bits active slave address

    • all zero broadcast address

  • Parked Member address (PM_ADDR)

    • 8 bit parked slave address

  • This MAC address is split into three parts

    • The Non-significant Address Part (NAP)

      • Used for encryption seed

  • The Upper Address part (UAP)

    • Used for error correction seed initialization & FH sequence generation

  • The Lower Address Part (LAP)

    • Used for FH sequence generation


  • Packet structure

    72 bits

    54 bits

    0 - 2744 bits

    Access Code

    Header

    Payload

    CRC

    Data

    header

    Voice

    ARQ

    No CRC

    FEC (optional)

    FEC (optional)

    Packet Structure


    Part two

    PART TWO

    CONTINUE BY

    ANIL KUMAR

    ELEX &COMM ENGG

    ROLL NO-2601031119


    Connection state machine

    Inquiry

    Page

    Standby

    Connected

    Transmit data

    Park

    Sniff

    Hold

    Connection State Machine


    Channel establishment

    Channel Establishment

    • There are two managed situations

      • A device knows the parameters of the other

        • It follows paging process

      • No knowledge about the other

        • Then it follows inquiring &paging process

    • Two main states and sub-states

      • Standby (no interaction)

      • Connection (working)

      • Seven more sub-states for attaching slaves & connection establishment

    Connection State Machine


    Channel establishment contd

    Channel Establishment (contd.)

    • Seven sub-states

      • Inquiry

      • Inquiry scan

      • Inquiry response

      • Page

      • Page scan

      • Master response

      • Slave response


    Link manager protocol

    Link Manager Protocol


    Link manager protocol1

    Link Manager Protocol

    • The Link Manager carries out link setup, authentication & link configuration.

    • Channel Control

      • All the work related to the channel control is managed by the master

        • The master uses polling process for this

      • The master is the first device which starts the connection

        • This roles can change (master-slave role switch)


    L2cap

    L2CAP

    • Service provided to the higher layer:

      • L2CAP provides connection-oriented and connectionless data services to upper layer protocols

      • Protocol multiplexing and demultiplexing capabilities

      • Segmentation & reassembly of large packets

      • L2CAP permits higher level protocols and applications to transmit and receive L2CAP data packets up to 64 kilobytes in length.


    Middleware protocol group

    IP

    Control

    Applications

    Data

    SDP

    RFCOMM

    Middleware Protocol Group

    Audio

    L2CAP

    Link Manager

    Baseband

    RF

    Middleware Protocol Group

    • Additional transport protocols to allow existing and new applications to operate over Bluetooth.

    • Packet based telephony control signaling protocol also present.

    • Also includes Service Discovery Protocol.


    Middleware protocol group contd

    Middleware Protocol Group (contd.)

    • Service Discovery Protocol (SDP)

      • Means for applications to discover device info, services and its characteristics.

    • TCP/IP

      • Network Protocols for packet data communication, routing.

    • RFCOMM

      • Cable replacement protocol, emulation of serial ports over wireless network.


    Ip over bluetooth

    IP Over Bluetooth

    • IP over Bluetooth v 1.0


    Ip over bluetooth1

    IP Over Bluetooth

    • IP over Bluetooth v 1.1


    File transfer profile

    File Transfer Profile

    • Profile provides:

      • Enhanced client-server interactions:

        • -browse, create, transfer folders

        • - browse, pull, push, delete files


    Headset profile

    Headset Profile

    • Profile provides:

      • Both devices must provide capability to initiate connection & accept/terminate calls.

      • Volume can be controlled from either device.

      • Audio gateway can notify headset of an incoming call.


    Core bluetooth products

    Core Bluetooth Products

    • Notebook PCs & Desktop computers

    • Printers

    • PDAs

    • Other handheld devices

    • Cell phones

    • Wireless peripherals:

      • Headsets

      • Cameras

    • CD Player

    • TV/VCR/DVD

    • Access Points

    • Telephone Answering Devices

    • Cordless Phones

    • Cars


    Other products

    Other Products…

    • 2004 Toyota Prius & Lexus LS 430

      • hands free calls

    • Digital Pulse Oximetry System

    • Toshiba Washer & Dryer

    • Nokia N-gage


    Security

    Security

    • Security Measures

      • Link Level Encryption & Authentication.

      • Personal Identification Numbers (PIN) for device access.

      • Long encryption keys are used (128 bit keys).

      • These keys are not transmitted over wireless. Other parameters are transmitted over wireless which in combination with certain information known to the device, can generate the keys.

      • Further encryption can be done at the application layer.


    A comparison

    A Comparison

    WLAN


    Bluetooth vs ird

    Bluetooth vs. IrD

    • Bluetooth

      • Point to Multipoint

      • Data & Voice

      • Easier Synchronization due to omni-directional and no LOS requirement

      • Devices can be mobile

      • Range 10 m

    • IrD

      • Point to point

      • Intended for Data Communication

      • Infrared, LOS communication

      • Can not penetrate solid objects

      • Both devices must be stationary, for synchronization

      • Range 1 m


    Bluetooth today tomorrow

    Bluetooth: Today & Tomorrow


    Will bluetooth become a household name

    Will Bluetooth become a household name?


    Future of bluetooth

    Future of Bluetooth

    • Success of Bluetooth depends on how well it is integrated into consumer products

      • Consumers are more interested in applications than the technology

      • Bluetooth must be successfully integrated into consumer products

      • Must provide benefits for consumer

      • Must not destroy current product benefits

    • Key Success Factors

      • Interoperability

      • Mass Production at Low Cost

      • Ease of Use

      • End User Experience


    Summary

    Summary

    • A new global standard for data and voice

    • Eliminate Cables

    • Low Power, Low range, Low Cost network devices

    • Future Improvements

      • Master-Slave relationship can be adjusted dynamically for optimal resource allocation and utilization.

      • Adaptive, closed loop transmit power control can be implemented to further reduce unnecessary power usage.


    Things that think don t make sense unless they link

    “Things that think…don’t make sense unless they link.”

    - Nicholas Negroponte, MIT Media Laboratory


    Thank you

    Thank You


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