Progression of the holocaust
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Progression of the Holocaust. FACTS. 63% of Jewish population in Europe was killed 91% of Jewish population in Poland was killed Auschwitz- Birkenau was liberated by Soviet troops on Jan. 27, 1945 Found 836, 255 women’s dresses 348,000 men’s suits 38,000 pairs of men’s shoes

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Facts
FACTS

  • 63% of Jewish population in Europe was killed

  • 91% of Jewish population in Poland was killed

  • Auschwitz-Birkenau was liberated by Soviet troops on Jan. 27, 1945

  • Found 836, 255 women’s dresses

  • 348,000 men’s suits

  • 38,000 pairs of men’s shoes

  • 14,000 pounds of human hair

  • But only 7,650 live prisoners



First stage definition early 1930s
First Stage: Definition (early 1930s)

  • Purpose of this stage was to establish the Jewish population as “different” from the rest of society

  • Nazis defined Jews based on so-called “scientific” evidence

  • Jews were required to register Jews for identity cards


Definition
Definition

  • Jewish people were separated from the rest of society by visible symbols-placing the label “Jew” on their clothing, passports and businesses

  • Towards the end of this stage, Jews were required to sew a yellow star on all of their clothing


Stage 2 expropriation late 1930s
Stage 2: Expropriation (late 1930s)

  • Purpose of this stage was to demoralize the Jewish population

  • Jewish properties and livelihoods were expropriated (taken away)

  • Law forbade Jews from holding certain jobs, living in certain places, owning businesses or having bank accounts


Stage 2
Stage 2

  • Because Jews had already been identified in the first stage, it was easy to enforce the new laws against them

  • Furthermore, Jews had already been established as different than and inferior to the rest of society, so few people objected


Stage 3 concentration early 1930s but intensified in 1939
Stage 3: Concentration (early 1930s, but intensified in 1939)

  • Purpose of this stage was not only to further remove the Jewish population from the rest of society (both physically and psychologically), but also to bring the Jews into a concentrated area to make it easier to transport them to the death camps


Stage 3
Stage 3

  • German Jews were not allowed to attend school, to travel, to own phones, radios, cameras or pets

  • In Poland in 1939, Jews were forced to move from the countryside into sectioned-off sections of cities called ghettos


Stage 31
Stage 3

  • In the ghettos, Jews worked as slave labourers, surviving on minimal supplies of food, water and shelter

  • Huge numbers of the Jews died in the ghettos of disease and malnutrition


Stage 4 annihilation from 1941 intensified after 1942
Stage 4: Annihilation (from 1941, intensified after 1942)

  • The sole purpose of this stage was eliminate the entire Jewish population-as well as:

  • anyone who disagreed with the Nazis; members of banned political parties (Communists and Social Democrats); Jehovah’s witnesses and members of many other religious groups; Gypsies; homosexuals; blacks; people with mental and physical disabilities


Stage 4
Stage 4

  • It began with the liquidation of the ghettos-transporting anyone who survived the liquidation to labour camps and death camps

  • In parts of Russia, Latvia and Lithuania, Jews ere shot or gassed by mobile killing units and dumped in mass graves

  • In the rest of Europe, Jews were transported to killing centers disguised as labour camps


Stage 41
Stage 4

  • Most of the Jews who died in the death camps were gassed in changers disguised as showers—their bodies were burned in crematoriums

  • Before people were killed in the death camps, one last expropriated took place—all personal property was taken from them, including clothing, shoes, eyeglasses, gold fillings in teeth and women’s hair


NOTE

  • It’s very important to understand that NONE of these stages were inevitable.

  • People could decide whether or not to enforce the laws or comply with them

  • People who resisted, however, were usually imprisoned or executed.


Chronology specific
Chronology-specific

  • 1933

  • Jews who worked for the government ad to give up their jobs

  • Citizenship was taken away

  • 1934

  • Jewish newspapers could not be sold in the streets

  • Marriage between Jews and Germans was illegal

  • All books written by Jews are burned in the streets


  • 1935

  • Jews cannot be in the army

  • 1936

  • Jews could not vote

  • Jewish doctors could not work in German hospitals


  • 1938

  • All Jewish passports were marked with a red letter “J”

  • Jews could not run businesses that were owned by Germans

  • Jews could not go to plays, movies or concerts

  • Jews could not go to German public schools

  • All Jewish businesses were shut down

  • Jews could not have driver’s licenses or own cars

  • Jews had to hand over all jewellery and art

  • Jews could not go to university


  • 1939

  • Jews must turn in their radios

  • Jews must wear a yellow star on their coat

  • 1940

  • Jews could not have phones

  • Jews were sent to concentration camps


  • 1941

  • Jews were not allowed to leave their homes without permission from the police

  • Jews were not allowed to use public phones

  • Jewish schools were closed


  • 1942

  • Jews were not allowed to have newspapers

  • Jews were not allowed to have pets

  • Jews were not allowed to have typewriters

  • Jews were not allowed to buy meat, eggs or milk

  • Jews were not allowed to use busses

  • Jews were not allowed to attend school


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