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Primary data sources. John Langley Adapted from work by Helen Cooke (SWPHO) 2008. Primary data sources. Differences between record-level and aggregate data Some examples of primary data (births, deaths, HES) Simple sources of pre-calculated data (VS, Compendium, LHO basket, NeSS)

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Primary data sources

Primary data sources

John Langley

Adapted from work by Helen Cooke (SWPHO) 2008


Primary data sources1
Primary data sources

  • Differences between record-level and aggregate data

  • Some examples of primary data (births, deaths, HES)

  • Simple sources of pre-calculated data (VS, Compendium, LHO basket, NeSS)

  • confidentiality

  • Codes and lookups

  • Specialist data sources (reference and links)

  • Geodemographics (segmentation)


Some data sources for public health
Some data sources for public health

Data types

  • person-based

  • Aggregate

  • More complex tools

    • Health Profiles, HPI, etc,

  • Codes and lookups


1 person based
1 Person-based

  • only available under confidentiality agreements to appropriate organisations

  • Individual records eg

    • Births

    • Mortality

    • HES

    • A&E attendances

  • May be anonymised

    • Record linkage increasingly difficult

      • May or may not have NHS number

    • Confidentiality issues


Common characteristics
Common characteristics

  • Each line is one patient/episode of care

  • Dates eg birth, death, admission

  • Geographical data eg postcode, LA

  • Appropriate details of COD, Underlying cause of death, place of death, diagnosis, procedure

  • Some socioeconomic data may be inferred Essential for non-standard analyses


Communal

Age

Units

Establish-

Underlying

Years

OfAge

Postcode

ment Code

COD

Sex

COD1

COD2

COD3

COD4

COD5

COD6

COD7

COD8

PCT

0

4

TR9

00976

1

T818

Y839

Q243

Q210

Q211

Q253

Q251

Q234

5KT

0

2

PL5

19289

2

S061

W650

W650

5F1

0

2

BA1

00976

1

S099

Y339

Y339

5FL

30

1

BH8

E

1

T07

X815

X815

5CE

0

3

BH12

04500

1

P363

P239

O469

O60

5KV

76

1

BA1

34979

1

I219

I219

5FL

0

3

BS10

00976

1

P543

P780

E841

P073

5JF

90

1

BS21

H

2

R54

C509

C509

5M8

74

1

TQ6

H

2

C80

C80

C80

5CV

80

1

TQ6

05868

2

J189

N19

J189

5CV

71

1

SN10

H

1

C160

C160

5K4

75

1

BS48

00982

1

T814

J852

N151

T821

Y831

I259

Y442

I259

5M8

74

1

BS23

25188

1

N179

N189

N139

I749

D469

D469

5M8

98

1

BH19

06319

2

J180

J449

S720

Y839

X599

J440

5FN

Extract from ONS mortality file


Extract from hes

hesid

age

sexcat

admidate

disdate

epidur

admimeth

dismeth

admisorc

disdest

mainspef

diag_1

diag_2

13256319

87

2

01-Apr-05

17-Jun-05

77

13

1

51

86

430

S7210

R13X

863234

88

2

01-Apr-05

08-Apr-05

7

21

1

19

19

110

S7200

W199

8369811

77

2

01-Apr-05

12-Apr-05

11

21

1

19

51

110

S7200

W199

22041799

80

2

01-Apr-05

11-Apr-05

10

21

1

19

51

110

S720

R634

22078557

75

2

01-Apr-05

07-Apr-05

6

21

1

19

19

110

S7200

W010

23713513

87

2

01-Apr-05

04-May-05

33

21

1

19

51

110

S7200

W199

32466323

96

2

01-Apr-05

13-Apr-05

12

21

1

19

19

110

S7210

W190

43693194

78

2

01-Apr-05

12-Apr-05

11

21

8

19

98

110

S7200

W190

46821454

90

2

01-Apr-05

04-Apr-05

3

21

1

19

51

110

S7200

W010

50118762

83

2

01-Apr-05

04-Apr-05

3

21

8

19

98

100

S7200

W199

Extract from HES


2 aggregate data
2 Aggregate data

  • Vital Statistics

    • CD or ONS website

  • Compendium

  • LHO Basket of Indicators

  • NeSS

  • No individual data

  • Rates already calculated

  • Quick for standard queries


Vital statistics
Vital Statistics

  • Accessible to all

  • A convenient summary of major statistics

  • resident population, births, maternities, deaths, mortality and migration

  • local administrative areas and health areas throughout the United Kingdom

  • explanatory material and illustrative maps

  • http://www.statistics.gov.uk/StatBase/Product.asp?vlnk=539&Pos=2&ColRank=1&Rank=272

  • Available at ward level on CD-ROM


Compendium of clinical and health indicators national centre for health outcomes development
Compendiumof clinical and health indicators National Centre for Health Outcomes Development

  • primitive – hundreds of Excel spreadsheets

  • You can now download all the indicators for your authority via the workbench on front page

  • Best collection of data on health and disease – less comprehensive on determinants


Compendium of clinical and health indicators
Compendiumof clinical and health indicators

  • Mortality, but increasingly lifestyle and outcomes

  • Risk factors from Health Survey for England (trend data at SHA level)

  • CD or NCHOD website

  • nww.nchod.nhs.uk complete and historic data sets

  • www.nchod.nhs.uk public website with small numbers suppressed


Basket of indicators produced by london health observatory
Basket of indicators produced by London Health Observatory

  • A wide variety of indicators of the wider determinants of health

  • http://www.lho.org.uk/Health_Inequalities/BasketOfIndicators/BasketData.htm


Browsing sources 1
Browsing sources (1)

  • Have a look at the NCHOD website: nww.nchod.nhs.uk (or www version if nww

  • access not available)

    • Browse the tables, maps, graphs section to

    • see what data is available.

    • 2. Look at data relating to teenage pregnancy –

    • what could you use it for, what are its

    • limitations?


Browsing sources 2
Browsing sources (2)

Look at the ONS website www.statistics.gov.uk

  • Select theme – ‘health and care’ and see what is available

  • To find census data by ward or PCT select ‘Neighbourhood’ at top of screen, then ‘Topics’ part way down screen, then ‘2001 Census’, then ‘Key statistics’

  • Look to see what data are available in the census

  • Look at the data for socio-economic classifications, economic activity, educational attainment.

  • Choose a ward in your local area by selecting (1) the data you want to look at, then (2) administrative area, and then (3) geographical area - England, East Midlands, your local authority and then a ward. See how the ward compares with the local authority as a whole for manual (semi-routine and routine) classifications, unemployment, no qualifications. (These are factors associated with higher smoking uptake.)


Confidentiality
Confidentiality

  • No statistics may be published which will reveal personal information

  • In practice this means no numbers under 5

  • Avoid indirect disclosure (disclosure by differencing) eg subtracting males from a total will reveal that the count for females us under 5



Codes and lookups
Codes and lookups

  • Gridlink (NHS Postcode Directory)

  • IMD

  • ICD-10

  • OPCS 4

  • Ward History Database

  • SNAC (Standard Names and Codes)



Index of multiple deprivation 2007
Index of Multiple Deprivation 2007

  • Distinct dimensions of deprivation which can be recognised and measured separately.

  • These are experienced by individuals living in an area.

  • People may be counted in one or more of the domains, depending on the number of types of deprivation that they experience.



Extract from imd
Extract from IMD

http://www.communities.gov.uk/communities/neighbourhoodrenewal/deprivation/deprivation07/


Imd 2007
IMD 2007

  • For every indicator:

  • Rank 1 is the most deprived SOA in England

  • Rank 32,482 the least

  • Ward scores and ranks are calculated (unofficially)

  • Local Authority summaries calculated (officially)



Opcs 4 classification of surgical operations and procedures
OPCS 4 – CLASSIFICATION OF SURGICAL OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURES

A Nervous System

B Endocrine System and Breast

C Eye

D Ear

E Respiratory Tract

F Mouth

G Upper Digestive Tract

H Lower Digestive Tract

J Other Abdominal Organs - principally Digestive

K Heart

L Arteries and Veins

M Urinary

N Male Genital Organs

P Lower Female Genital Tract

Q Upper Female Genital Tract

R Female Genital Tract associated with Pregnancy Childbirth and Puerperium

S Skin

T Soft Tissue

U Bones and Joints of Skull and Spine

W Other Bones and Joints

X Miscellaneous Operations

Y Subsidiary Classification of Methods of Operation

Z Subsidiary Classification of Sites of Operation



Other disease classifications
Other disease classifications PROCEDURES

  • Read (primary care)

  • SNOMED (Systematic Nomenclature of Medicine)

  • ICF (International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health)

    http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/Health%20Information/HK%203b3.htm


Elementary record linkage
Elementary record linkage PROCEDURES

  • If you have a common field in two sets of records you can link records

  • eg NHS number (link HES and mortality records)

  • Postcode (link mortality to Gridlink to IMD for SuperOutput Area (LSOA))


Specialist data sources

Many sources of special data (which we can’t cover here) including:

Infectious diseases (hpa.org.uk)

Cancer

Prescribing http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/Health%20Information/HK%203b6&7.htm

Sexual health (hpa.org.uk and http://www.everychildmatters.gov.uk/teenagepregnancy/)

Lifestyle

Specialist data sources


Geodemographics
Geodemographics including:

  • Segmentation


What you have learned
What you have learned including:

  • Differences between record-level and aggregate data

  • Some examples of primary data (births, deaths, HES)

  • Simple sources of pre-calculated data (VS, Compendium, LHO basket, NeSS)

  • confidentiality

  • Codes and lookups

  • Specialist data sources (reference and links)

  • What geodemographics and segmentation are


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