Primary data sources
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Primary data sources. John Langley Adapted from work by Helen Cooke (SWPHO) 2008. Primary data sources. Differences between record-level and aggregate data Some examples of primary data (births, deaths, HES) Simple sources of pre-calculated data (VS, Compendium, LHO basket, NeSS)

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Primary data sources

Primary data sources

John Langley

Adapted from work by Helen Cooke (SWPHO) 2008


Primary data sources1

Primary data sources

  • Differences between record-level and aggregate data

  • Some examples of primary data (births, deaths, HES)

  • Simple sources of pre-calculated data (VS, Compendium, LHO basket, NeSS)

  • confidentiality

  • Codes and lookups

  • Specialist data sources (reference and links)

  • Geodemographics (segmentation)


Some data sources for public health

Some data sources for public health

Data types

  • person-based

  • Aggregate

  • More complex tools

    • Health Profiles, HPI, etc,

  • Codes and lookups


1 person based

1 Person-based

  • only available under confidentiality agreements to appropriate organisations

  • Individual records eg

    • Births

    • Mortality

    • HES

    • A&E attendances

  • May be anonymised

    • Record linkage increasingly difficult

      • May or may not have NHS number

    • Confidentiality issues


Common characteristics

Common characteristics

  • Each line is one patient/episode of care

  • Dates eg birth, death, admission

  • Geographical data eg postcode, LA

  • Appropriate details of COD, Underlying cause of death, place of death, diagnosis, procedure

  • Some socioeconomic data may be inferred Essential for non-standard analyses


Primary data sources

Communal

Age

Units

Establish-

Underlying

Years

OfAge

Postcode

ment Code

COD

Sex

COD1

COD2

COD3

COD4

COD5

COD6

COD7

COD8

PCT

0

4

TR9

00976

1

T818

Y839

Q243

Q210

Q211

Q253

Q251

Q234

5KT

0

2

PL5

19289

2

S061

W650

W650

5F1

0

2

BA1

00976

1

S099

Y339

Y339

5FL

30

1

BH8

E

1

T07

X815

X815

5CE

0

3

BH12

04500

1

P363

P239

O469

O60

5KV

76

1

BA1

34979

1

I219

I219

5FL

0

3

BS10

00976

1

P543

P780

E841

P073

5JF

90

1

BS21

H

2

R54

C509

C509

5M8

74

1

TQ6

H

2

C80

C80

C80

5CV

80

1

TQ6

05868

2

J189

N19

J189

5CV

71

1

SN10

H

1

C160

C160

5K4

75

1

BS48

00982

1

T814

J852

N151

T821

Y831

I259

Y442

I259

5M8

74

1

BS23

25188

1

N179

N189

N139

I749

D469

D469

5M8

98

1

BH19

06319

2

J180

J449

S720

Y839

X599

J440

5FN

Extract from ONS mortality file


Extract from hes

hesid

age

sexcat

admidate

disdate

epidur

admimeth

dismeth

admisorc

disdest

mainspef

diag_1

diag_2

13256319

87

2

01-Apr-05

17-Jun-05

77

13

1

51

86

430

S7210

R13X

863234

88

2

01-Apr-05

08-Apr-05

7

21

1

19

19

110

S7200

W199

8369811

77

2

01-Apr-05

12-Apr-05

11

21

1

19

51

110

S7200

W199

22041799

80

2

01-Apr-05

11-Apr-05

10

21

1

19

51

110

S720

R634

22078557

75

2

01-Apr-05

07-Apr-05

6

21

1

19

19

110

S7200

W010

23713513

87

2

01-Apr-05

04-May-05

33

21

1

19

51

110

S7200

W199

32466323

96

2

01-Apr-05

13-Apr-05

12

21

1

19

19

110

S7210

W190

43693194

78

2

01-Apr-05

12-Apr-05

11

21

8

19

98

110

S7200

W190

46821454

90

2

01-Apr-05

04-Apr-05

3

21

1

19

51

110

S7200

W010

50118762

83

2

01-Apr-05

04-Apr-05

3

21

8

19

98

100

S7200

W199

Extract from HES


2 aggregate data

2 Aggregate data

  • Vital Statistics

    • CD or ONS website

  • Compendium

  • LHO Basket of Indicators

  • NeSS

  • No individual data

  • Rates already calculated

  • Quick for standard queries


Vital statistics

Vital Statistics

  • Accessible to all

  • A convenient summary of major statistics

  • resident population, births, maternities, deaths, mortality and migration

  • local administrative areas and health areas throughout the United Kingdom

  • explanatory material and illustrative maps

  • http://www.statistics.gov.uk/StatBase/Product.asp?vlnk=539&Pos=2&ColRank=1&Rank=272

  • Available at ward level on CD-ROM


Compendium of clinical and health indicators national centre for health outcomes development

Compendiumof clinical and health indicators National Centre for Health Outcomes Development

  • primitive – hundreds of Excel spreadsheets

  • You can now download all the indicators for your authority via the workbench on front page

  • Best collection of data on health and disease – less comprehensive on determinants


Compendium of clinical and health indicators

Compendiumof clinical and health indicators

  • Mortality, but increasingly lifestyle and outcomes

  • Risk factors from Health Survey for England (trend data at SHA level)

  • CD or NCHOD website

  • nww.nchod.nhs.uk complete and historic data sets

  • www.nchod.nhs.uk public website with small numbers suppressed


Basket of indicators produced by london health observatory

Basket of indicators produced by London Health Observatory

  • A wide variety of indicators of the wider determinants of health

  • http://www.lho.org.uk/Health_Inequalities/BasketOfIndicators/BasketData.htm


Browsing sources 1

Browsing sources (1)

  • Have a look at the NCHOD website: nww.nchod.nhs.uk (or www version if nww

  • access not available)

    • Browse the tables, maps, graphs section to

    • see what data is available.

    • 2. Look at data relating to teenage pregnancy –

    • what could you use it for, what are its

    • limitations?


Browsing sources 2

Browsing sources (2)

Look at the ONS website www.statistics.gov.uk

  • Select theme – ‘health and care’ and see what is available

  • To find census data by ward or PCT select ‘Neighbourhood’ at top of screen, then ‘Topics’ part way down screen, then ‘2001 Census’, then ‘Key statistics’

  • Look to see what data are available in the census

  • Look at the data for socio-economic classifications, economic activity, educational attainment.

  • Choose a ward in your local area by selecting (1) the data you want to look at, then (2) administrative area, and then (3) geographical area - England, East Midlands, your local authority and then a ward. See how the ward compares with the local authority as a whole for manual (semi-routine and routine) classifications, unemployment, no qualifications. (These are factors associated with higher smoking uptake.)


Confidentiality

Confidentiality

  • No statistics may be published which will reveal personal information

  • In practice this means no numbers under 5

  • Avoid indirect disclosure (disclosure by differencing) eg subtracting males from a total will reveal that the count for females us under 5


Screengrab of ness site

Screengrab of NeSS site


Codes and lookups

Codes and lookups

  • Gridlink (NHS Postcode Directory)

  • IMD

  • ICD-10

  • OPCS 4

  • Ward History Database

  • SNAC (Standard Names and Codes)


Extract from gridlink postcode file

Extract from gridlink postcode file


Index of multiple deprivation 2007

Index of Multiple Deprivation 2007

  • Distinct dimensions of deprivation which can be recognised and measured separately.

  • These are experienced by individuals living in an area.

  • People may be counted in one or more of the domains, depending on the number of types of deprivation that they experience.


Domains of index of multiple deprivation 2007

Domains of Index of Multiple Deprivation 2007


Extract from imd

Extract from IMD

http://www.communities.gov.uk/communities/neighbourhoodrenewal/deprivation/deprivation07/


Imd 2007

IMD 2007

  • For every indicator:

  • Rank 1 is the most deprived SOA in England

  • Rank 32,482 the least

  • Ward scores and ranks are calculated (unofficially)

  • Local Authority summaries calculated (officially)


International classification of diseases icd 10 chapters

International Classification of DiseasesICD-10 chapters


Opcs 4 classification of surgical operations and procedures

OPCS 4 – CLASSIFICATION OF SURGICAL OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURES

ANervous System

BEndocrine System and Breast

CEye

DEar

ERespiratory Tract

FMouth

GUpper Digestive Tract

HLower Digestive Tract

JOther Abdominal Organs - principally Digestive

KHeart

LArteries and Veins

MUrinary

NMale Genital Organs

PLower Female Genital Tract

QUpper Female Genital Tract

RFemale Genital Tract associated with Pregnancy Childbirth and Puerperium

SSkin

TSoft Tissue

UBones and Joints of Skull and Spine

WOther Bones and Joints

XMiscellaneous Operations

YSubsidiary Classification of Methods of Operation

ZSubsidiary Classification of Sites of Operation


Extract from opcs 4

EXTRACT FROM OPCS 4


Other disease classifications

Other disease classifications

  • Read (primary care)

  • SNOMED (Systematic Nomenclature of Medicine)

  • ICF (International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health)

    http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/Health%20Information/HK%203b3.htm


Elementary record linkage

Elementary record linkage

  • If you have a common field in two sets of records you can link records

  • eg NHS number (link HES and mortality records)

  • Postcode (link mortality to Gridlink to IMD for SuperOutput Area (LSOA))


Specialist data sources

Many sources of special data (which we can’t cover here) including:

Infectious diseases (hpa.org.uk)

Cancer

Prescribing http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/Health%20Information/HK%203b6&7.htm

Sexual health (hpa.org.uk and http://www.everychildmatters.gov.uk/teenagepregnancy/)

Lifestyle

Specialist data sources


Geodemographics

Geodemographics

  • Segmentation


What you have learned

What you have learned

  • Differences between record-level and aggregate data

  • Some examples of primary data (births, deaths, HES)

  • Simple sources of pre-calculated data (VS, Compendium, LHO basket, NeSS)

  • confidentiality

  • Codes and lookups

  • Specialist data sources (reference and links)

  • What geodemographics and segmentation are


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