Invasive species ii management
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Invasive species II: management. Bio 415/615. Questions. 1. What is the ‘homogeocene’? 2. When is the best time to ‘stop’ an invader, in terms of management cost and success?

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Invasive species ii management

Invasive species II:management

Bio 415/615


Questions

Questions

1. What is the ‘homogeocene’?

2. When is the best time to ‘stop’ an invader, in terms of management cost and success?

3. Why do Barney & DiTomaso (2008 Bioscience) suggest domestication of plants for biofuels creates a greater invasion risk than food crop domestication?

4. What did the Cactoblastis moth do to prickly pear cacti in Australia?


What harm do invaders cause

What harm do invaders cause?


Melaleuca in s florida

Melaleucain S Florida

  • Transpiration higher

  • Lower water table

  • Hotter fire

  • Deeper burn in organic matter, more severe effects


Invasive plant effects in natural areas

Invasive Plant Effects in Natural Areas

Plant to Plant: Direct Effects

Competition for resources, space Growth, repro.

Hybridization Reproduction

Plant to Plant: Indirect

Competition for pollinators, dispersers Reproduction

Introduction of disease to native spp Survival

Ecosystem Effects

Change in Processes Growth, repro.

Disturbance, hydrology, food webs, nutrient cycling


Economic other impacts to human well being

Economic & other impacts to human well-being

  • Forestry, agriculture

  • Boating, fishing, swimming, water supply

  • Allergies, toxins

  • Fire: human life and property

  • Cost of control

  • Environmental cost of toxic chemical use

  • Nature Conservancy suggests annual costs of invaders are about 5% of world economy; in US $120billion/yr

  • Land ‘infested’ with invaders take up space of CA?


The homogeocene

The Homogeocene

  • Globally, species diversity is going down. Locally, species diversity is going up. What does this mean for communities?


Rahel 2000 science 288 854 856

Rahel 2000Science 288:854-856

% Introduced


Rahel 2000 science 288 854 8561

Rahel 2000Science 288:854-856

All

Extirpations

Introductions


Non indigenous birds in hawaii lockwood 2006 biol invasions 8 449 457

Non-indigenous birds in HawaiiLockwood 2006. Biol. Invasions 8:449-457.


Invasion hypotheses what to do

Invasion hypotheses:What to do?

Innate biology: Weediness, competitiveness, tolerance, preadaptation:

Enemy release/Biotic resistance:

Community invasibility: diversity, productivity, disturbance:

Availability:

Rapid evolution:


Invasion hypotheses what to do1

Invasion hypotheses:What to do?

Innate biology: Weediness, competitiveness, tolerance, preadaptation: SOME SPP ARE INVASIVE, PROHIBIT THROUGH RISK ASSESSMENT, DEVELOP STERILE CULTIVARS—YES

Enemy release/Biotic resistance: MANY SPP ARE INVASIVE, ESPECIALLY THOSE WITH HIGH GROWTH RATES AND HIGH RESOURCE DEMANDS, ASSESS ROLE OF ENEMIES—YES, but research is demanding

Community invasibility: diversity, productivity, disturbance: SOME COMMUNITIES ARE INVASIBLE, MANAGE AGAINST INVASION, MANAGE AGAINST DISTURBANCE AND HIGH RESOURCE LEVELS, MANAGE FOR HIGH NATIVE RICHNESS—SOMETIMES, but not always feasible (disturbance, low richness, high resources are natural, too)

Availability: MOST SPP ARE INVASIVE, REDUCE AVAILABILITY—YES

Rapid evolution: RESTRICT GENETIC DIVERSITY—YES, but seems unlikely given horticultural interest in selection


Invasive species ii management

Detection

Containment

Eradication

Prevention

Exclusion

Preclearance

Control

Other Countries

USA

Traditional Strategies for Invasive Species


Management costs accumulate

Management costs accumulate:

  • Prevention

  • Early detection, narrow window near entry point for eradication

  • Controlling in selected locations

  • Bearing the cost of change


Prevention australian weed risk assessment

Prevention: Australian Weed Risk Assessment

Pheloung et al. (1999) tested the WRA against 370 plants present in Australia; rate of rejection of invaders was 100% and rate of false positives was low (7%)

http://www.daff.gov.au/ba/reviews/weeds/system/weed_risk_assessment


Invasive species ii management

INVASIVES ARE A SMALL % OF EXOTICS

INVASIVES ARE A SMALL % OF SALES

--Florida data from Lippincott & Hall 1996

Taxa%

Exotics in cultivation25,000--

Naturalized1,0004

Weedy7503

Possible natural area impacts1250.5

Sold in the trade today400.16

Economically important 130.05 (33%/40)


Islands and eradication of exotics krajick 2005 science 310 1410 1413

Islands and eradication of exoticsKrajick 2005. Science 310:1410-1413.


Eradication over large areas

Eradication over large areas


Invasive species ii management

Classical Biocontrol: Cactoblastis on Opuntia

Female Cactoblastis ovipositingon Opuntia, linear egg mass attached to a cactus spine

Damage to Opuntia by Cactoblastis larvae,pad destroyed, plant open to infection


Invasive species ii management

Following this stunning success, C. cactorum has been widely

used to control Opuntia spp. around the world.

Before CactoblastisAfter Cactoblastis

This lodged the idea of biological control of weeds in the minds

of scientists and launched succeeding programs.


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