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Ethnic Conflict . Humanitarian Emergencies. Last Class:. In our last class, among other things, we: Received a brief history of Rwanda Thought about the effects of ethnicity on both the history of that state and on the genocide of 1994 Today:

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ethnic conflict

Ethnic Conflict

Humanitarian Emergencies

last class
Last Class:
  • In our last class, among other things, we:
    • Received a brief history of Rwanda
    • Thought about the effects of ethnicity on both the history of that state and on the genocide of 1994
  • Today:
    • We will discuss humanitarian problems brought about by ethnic conflict
humanitarian issues
Humanitarian Issues
  • Displaced persons
  • Human rights violations
  • Child soldiers
war what is it good for
War, what is it good for?
  • Creating Internally Displaced Persons and Refugees
  • Violating Human Rights
  • Conscripting Child Soldiers
displaced persons
Displaced Persons
  • Internally Displaced Persons
  • Refugees
  • Tend to create ethnically homogenous regions within states
  • Economic burden on the receiving state
  • Political burden on the receiving state
    • Including possible war between the two states
internally displaced persons
Internally Displaced Persons
  • Number of Internally Displaced Persons, and Internally Displaced Persons as a percentage of total population in the northern Ugandan districts affected by the Lord’s Action Resistance militia
internally displaced persons1
Numbers in several states:

Afghanistan: 200,000

Azerbaijan: 578,545

Bosnia: 309,240

Burundi: 170,000

Colombia: 1,580,396 - 3,410,041

DRC: 2,330,000

India: 600,000+

Indonesia: 342,000-600,000

Russia: 339,000

Sri Lanka: 352,374

Turkey: 350,000 - 1,000,000+

Sudan: 6,000,000

Uganda: 1,400,000

United States: ~1,000,000

Internally Displaced Persons
displaced persons1
Displaced Persons
  • IDP solutions?
    • None. Why?
  • Refugee-receiving state solutions?
    • Closed borders
    • Concentration camps (deterrence)
displaced persons2
Displaced Persons
  • International NGO solutions?
    • Helping IDPs requires the acquiescence of the state, which is rare
    • Helping refugees also requires the receiving state to allow the help, but they tend to grant that permission more freely
    • Unfortunately, the refugees may use the aid to purchase arms to take up against their home state
human rights violations
Human Rights Violations
  • Rape, torture, and other forms of abuse is used by all sides in a conflict
    • Why? Terror helps keep people in line. If they fear you, you can focus elsewhere.
  • To quote The Man in Black:
    • “Once word leaks out that a pirate has gone soft, people begin to disobey you, and then it\'s nothing but work, work, work, all the time.”
human rights violations1
Human Rights Violations
  • Four levels of combat:
    • Belligerents
    • Insurgents
    • Guerillas
    • Civil War participants
  • When a soldier looks like a civilian, civilians become classified as soldiers
child soldiers
Child Soldiers
  • According to Amnesty International:
    • Between 1994 and 1998, 300,000 children under the age of 15 participated in 35 conflicts around the world, although not always as gun-carrying soldiers
  • Cooks, cleaners, guards, sex slaves
child soldiers europe
Child Soldiers (Europe)
  • Child soldiers used in:
    • Chechnya
child soldiers americas
Child Soldiers (Americas)
  • Child soldiers used in:
    • Colombia
child soldiers middle east
Child Soldiers (Middle East)
  • Child soldiers used in:
    • Iran
    • Iraq
    • Israel
    • Yemen
child soldiers asia
Child Soldiers (Asia)
  • Child soldiers used in:
    • Afghanistan
    • India
    • Indonesia
    • Laos
    • Sri Lanka
    • Philippines
    • Myanmar
child soldiers africa
Child Soldiers (Africa)
  • In Africa, approximately 200,000 used in:
    • Burundi
    • Côte d\'Ivoire
    • Democratic Republic of Congo
    • Rwanda
    • Sierra Leone
    • Somalia
    • Sudan
    • Uganda
lord s resistance army
Lord’s Resistance Army
  • Formed in 1987
  • Paramilitary group operating mainly in northern Uganda and parts of Sudan
  • Armed rebellion against the Ugandan government
  • One of Africa\'s longest-running conflicts
  • The leader is Joseph Kony
lord s resistance army1
Lord’s Resistance Army
  • Accused of systematic human rights violations, including:
    • Mutilation
    • Torture
    • Rape
    • Abduction of civilians
    • Use of child soldiers
    • Several massacres
child soldiers1
Child Soldiers
  • February 21: Red Hand Day
    • Commemoration day to draw public attention to the practice of using children as soldiers in wars and armed conflicts.
child soldiers2
Child Soldiers
  • Why do children willingly join?
  • Why is the use of child soldiers so condemned in International Law?
  • Why are child soldiers worse than adult soldiers?
assignment
Assignment
  • Taras and Ganguly 2006: 75-86
  • Tomorrow:
    • Rogue and Failed states: Should we really care?
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