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Warm up (Engage). -Make a “T” chart and write “Break” on left side And “Build/assemble” on the right side. Using the pictures below identify which one breaks things and which ones build or assemble. Chain Saw. Tape. Glue. Scissors. Stapler. Knife.

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Warm up engage
Warm up (Engage)

-Make a “T” chart and write “Break” on left side

And “Build/assemble” on the right side.

Using the pictures below identify which one breaks things and which ones build or assemble.

Chain Saw

Tape

Glue

Scissors

Stapler

Knife



Video reflection
Video Reflection

  • Where is fat digested?

  • Where is carbohydrate digested?

  • Where is protein digested?

  • What is the name of the structure that aids in digestion for all these Biomolecules?




How does it happen
How does it happen?

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)

Liver= host many enzymes such as Catalase

Catalase turns H2O2 into…

H2O2 + Catalase (in liver) = H20 +O2

What is H20?

What is 02?

So where is bubbling coming from?


Enzymes
Enzymes

  • Enzymes are proteins that act as biological catalysts.

  • The function of a catalysts is to speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells.

  • Enzymes act by lowering the activation energies in a chemical reaction.


Enzymes1
ENZYMES

  • Proteins that regulate chemical reactions (ex. digestion).

  • Catalyst-speeds up chemical reaction but is not consumed in the reaction.

  • Enzymes are very specific to who they attach: Works like a lock and key:

    • Substrate

    • Active site



How enzyme works
How enzyme works

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/24/Induced_fit_diagram.svg/450px-Induced_fit_diagram.svg.png


They can also do this
They can also do this…

What’s the difference?


How do enzymes work
How do enzymes work?

  • The Enzyme-Substrate Complex

    • Enzymes provide a site where reactants can be brought together to react (active sites).

    • The reactants that binds to the active site is called substrates.



Enzymes2
Enzymes

  • Enzymes can break apart a chemical molecule. OR

  • Put them together.


Chemically this is what enzymes do
Chemically this is what enzymes do…

  • Catalyst-speeds up chemical reaction but is not consumed in the reaction.

    • They Kick off the chemical reaction by Lowering the Activation energy.

  • Activation energy: The energy required to complete a reaction.


Reaction pathway

without enzyme

Activation energy

without enzyme

Activation

energy

with enzyme

Reactants

Reaction pathway

with enzyme

Products

50

B

40

A

30

20

10


Shape matters
Shape matters!

Enzymes are proteins that have an active site some where on the molecule where others molecules can land and react. Like a Pretzel

Active site

http://today.slac.stanford.edu/images/2010/algae-enzyme.jpg


Think of enzyme as pac man
Think of enzyme as Pac man

http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_Q8OAp1ni8ys/S_d18_SKKkI/AAAAAAAAAHg/973QvIZGTYE/s1600/pacman.PNG


Exit ticket
EXIT TICKET

  • Enzymes belong to which biomolecule?

  • What does a catalysts do to a chemical reaction?

  • T/F Any substrate can bind to the active site of an enzyme.

  • T/F Enzymes can only break apart a substrate.

  • T/F All proteins are enzymes.


What affects enzyme activity
What Affects Enzyme Activity?

Three factors:

1. Environmental Conditions

2. Cofactors and Coenzymes

3. Enzyme Inhibitors

20


1 environmental conditions
1. Environmental Conditions

1. Extreme Temperature are the most dangerous

- high tempsmay denature (unfold) the enzyme.

2. pH (most like 6 - 8 pH near neutral)

3. Ionic concentration (salt ions)

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2 cofactors and coenzymes
2. Cofactors and Coenzymes

Inorganic substances (zinc, iron)andvitamins (respectively) are sometimes need for proper enzymatic activity.

Example:

Iron must be present in the quaternary structure-hemoglobin in order for it to pick up oxygen.

22


Two examples of enzyme inhibitors
Two examples of Enzyme Inhibitors

a. Competitive inhibitors: are chemicals that resemble an enzyme’s normal substrate and compete with it for the active site.

Enzyme

Competitive inhibitor

Substrate

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Inhibitors
Inhibitors

b. Noncompetitive inhibitors:

Inhibitors that do not enter the active site, but bind to another part of the enzyme causing the enzyme to change its shape, which in turn alters the active site.

Noncompetitive

Inhibitor

Enzyme

active site

altered

Substrate

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