Warm up engage
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Warm up (Engage). -Make a “T” chart and write “Break” on left side And “Build/assemble” on the right side. Using the pictures below identify which one breaks things and which ones build or assemble. Chain Saw. Tape. Glue. Scissors. Stapler. Knife.

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Warm up (Engage)

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Warm up engage

Warm up (Engage)

-Make a “T” chart and write “Break” on left side

And “Build/assemble” on the right side.

Using the pictures below identify which one breaks things and which ones build or assemble.

Chain Saw

Tape

Glue

Scissors

Stapler

Knife


What happens to the food after we eat them

What happens to the food after we eat them?


Video reflection

Video Reflection

  • Where is fat digested?

  • Where is carbohydrate digested?

  • Where is protein digested?

  • What is the name of the structure that aids in digestion for all these Biomolecules?


Enzymes who are you

Enzymes, who are you?


This is what enzymes do

This is what enzymes do …


How does it happen

How does it happen?

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)

Liver= host many enzymes such as Catalase

Catalase turns H2O2 into…

H2O2 + Catalase (in liver) = H20 +O2

What is H20?

What is 02?

So where is bubbling coming from?


Enzymes

Enzymes

  • Enzymes are proteins that act as biological catalysts.

  • The function of a catalysts is to speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells.

  • Enzymes act by lowering the activation energies in a chemical reaction.


Enzymes1

ENZYMES

  • Proteins that regulate chemical reactions (ex. digestion).

  • Catalyst-speeds up chemical reaction but is not consumed in the reaction.

  • Enzymes are very specific to who they attach: Works like a lock and key:

    • Substrate

    • Active site


How are enzymes formed

How are enzymes formed?


How enzyme works

How enzyme works

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/24/Induced_fit_diagram.svg/450px-Induced_fit_diagram.svg.png


They can also do this

They can also do this…

What’s the difference?


How do enzymes work

How do enzymes work?

  • The Enzyme-Substrate Complex

    • Enzymes provide a site where reactants can be brought together to react (active sites).

    • The reactants that binds to the active site is called substrates.


Video summary of what enzymes do functionally

Video summary of what enzymes do functionally

Click here


Enzymes2

Enzymes

  • Enzymes can break apart a chemical molecule. OR

  • Put them together.


Chemically this is what enzymes do

Chemically this is what enzymes do…

  • Catalyst-speeds up chemical reaction but is not consumed in the reaction.

    • They Kick off the chemical reaction by Lowering the Activation energy.

  • Activation energy: The energy required to complete a reaction.


Warm up engage

Reaction pathway

without enzyme

Activation energy

without enzyme

Activation

energy

with enzyme

Reactants

Reaction pathway

with enzyme

Products

50

B

40

A

30

20

10


Shape matters

Shape matters!

Enzymes are proteins that have an active site some where on the molecule where others molecules can land and react. Like a Pretzel

Active site

http://today.slac.stanford.edu/images/2010/algae-enzyme.jpg


Think of enzyme as pac man

Think of enzyme as Pac man

http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_Q8OAp1ni8ys/S_d18_SKKkI/AAAAAAAAAHg/973QvIZGTYE/s1600/pacman.PNG


Exit ticket

EXIT TICKET

  • Enzymes belong to which biomolecule?

  • What does a catalysts do to a chemical reaction?

  • T/F Any substrate can bind to the active site of an enzyme.

  • T/F Enzymes can only break apart a substrate.

  • T/F All proteins are enzymes.


What affects enzyme activity

What Affects Enzyme Activity?

Three factors:

1.Environmental Conditions

2.Cofactors and Coenzymes

3.Enzyme Inhibitors

20


1 environmental conditions

1. Environmental Conditions

1. Extreme Temperature are the most dangerous

- high tempsmay denature (unfold) the enzyme.

2.pH (most like 6 - 8 pH near neutral)

3.Ionic concentration (salt ions)

21


2 cofactors and coenzymes

2. Cofactors and Coenzymes

Inorganic substances (zinc, iron)andvitamins (respectively) are sometimes need for proper enzymatic activity.

Example:

Iron must be present in the quaternary structure-hemoglobin in order for it to pick up oxygen.

22


Two examples of enzyme inhibitors

Two examples of Enzyme Inhibitors

a. Competitive inhibitors: are chemicals that resemble an enzyme’s normal substrate and compete with it for the active site.

Enzyme

Competitive inhibitor

Substrate

23


Inhibitors

Inhibitors

b.Noncompetitive inhibitors:

Inhibitors that do not enter the active site, but bind to another part of the enzyme causing the enzyme to change its shape, which in turn alters the active site.

Noncompetitive

Inhibitor

Enzyme

active site

altered

Substrate

24


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