The War for Independence

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First Continental Congress: 1774. Met in Philadelphia in response to Intolerable ActsSamuel Adams, John Adams, George Washington, Patrick Henry all attendAn attempt to express grievances to the KingDifferences in views between radicals and moderates. Concord and Lexington: April 1775. . General Gage sent troops to arrest Sam Adams and John HancockAlso to raid a militia ammunition siteWilliam Dawes and Paul Revere ride to warn them British are coming"Shot heard round the world".

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The War for Independence

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1. The War for Independence 1775-1783

2. First Continental Congress: 1774 Met in Philadelphia in response to Intolerable Acts Samuel Adams, John Adams, George Washington, Patrick Henry all attend An attempt to express grievances to the King Differences in views between radicals and moderates

3. Concord and Lexington: April 1775 General Gage sent troops to arrest Sam Adams and John Hancock Also to raid a militia ammunition site William Dawes and Paul Revere ride to warn them “British are coming” “Shot heard round the world”

4. American Colonies: Strengths: Outstanding leadership (GW, Franklin, etc) Agriculturally self sustaining Competent marksmen Moral advantage in fighting for a just cause Weaknesses: Badly organized – infighting between states Jealousy amongst colonies Economic difficulties Lack of military experience

5. Britain: Weakness: Enormous distance Difficult to occupy large coastline Fighting against an idea – how do you contain that? Weak leadership – egotistical, arrogant France waiting for revenge Strengths: High population (7.5 mill vs. 2.5 mill in Amer) Superior navy and military 20,000 slaves join British Can entice Native Americans

6. 1776: Declaration of Independence

7. “We hold these truths to be self evident that all men are created equal Did Thomas Jefferson mean that literally? Then what about slaves? This followed several “olive branch petitions” to reach out to the King Follows Thomas Paine: Common Sense

8. Two Parts: Preamble: Restated theory of John Locke “all men are created equal” Grievances against the king: Claimed king had violated contract with American colonies – Jefferson gives a list of how so This is written to King of England as well as to king of France

9. British Military Strategy:

10. Phase I: New England 1775-1776 Gage: This is a “Boston issue” – so, let’s end it in Boston Loss at Concord shows British need to retreat to Boston (well defended) Attempts to seize high-ground fail at Bunker HIll Sail down Hudson River and seal off New England with a blockade

11. Phase II: Mid-Atlantic

12. Phase II: Mid-Atlantic Region William Howe: In command of forces – takes up residency in NYC Drove Americans out of Long Island and into NJ and PA Plan: Sail down Hudson River and seal off New England with a blockade Oct 1777: Johnny Burgoyne to sail down Hudson – Attacked by Ethan Allen and Green Mtn Boys of Vermont

13. Phase II (Cont’d) Battle of Saratoga: France joins American cause Winter 1777: Howe warm in NY while GW cold in Valley Forge, PA Iriquois unofficially align with British 1777: GW crosses the Delaware to attack the sleeping “Hessians” (German mercenaries hired by the British) Brits move into Philadelphia – closer to stamp out resistance

15. Phase III: The South France in the war, and recent losses in New England and Mid-Atlantic force them South Many “Tories” down there 1778: Admiral Howe replaced by Sir Henry Clinton Clinton: Moved troops from Philadelphia back to New York 1778: Benedict Arnold turns to British side – huge loss for Washington

16. The South (Cont’d) Dec 1778: Brits capture Savannah, GA and move into Charlestown, SC Goal: harass patriotic fervor in the South Americans: capture 1100 loyalists Lord Cornwallis (Brit) crushed American general Horatio Gates Gates replaced by Nathaniel Greene – loses to Cornwallis, but able to stop any advancement by the British

17. Yorktown: Oct 1781

18. Battle of Yorktown Combination of Washington Forces and French leader Rochambeau “Back Cornwallis” against the Coast – caught between forces on land and French navy British forced to surrender

19. Treaty of Paris: September 1783: Recognition of Independence from the British American territory expands from South of Canada to Georgia Americans agree to re-pay loyalists for lost land (Hutchinson, etc) Lands west of Appalachia not defined (not sure who owns it – later fight?) Brits never really leave from interior

20. War and changes in American society: Loyalists and Minorities Merchants dependent on Imperial system lose everything Anglican church officials shunned Passive Quaker churches diminished Most British elite lose houses, property, livlihood

21. War and changes in American society: American Elite Continued to influence society Many would argue with each other over issues of Federalist vs. Anti-Federalist measures

22. War and changes in American society: Native Americans American victory weakened overall state of natives Most natives saw British as “lesser” of two evils, and more likely to win Increased demands for white settlers in the West

23. War and changes in American society: Women Many dependent on tradesmen or farms – find trouble during Rev War Some follow husbands in the camps Molly Pitcher: Carried pitchers of water to the men in battle Abigail Adams: Hopes her husband can create a “code of laws”

24. War and changes in American society: American Economy No imperial trading partner Spanish, French and other Europeans feel they have access to American trading rights Lack of produced materials now that we broke free from Britain Most of Europeans seek to make gains from American freedom – now that we’re all alone unprotected

25. Big Questions: Now what? How do we effectively run our own country? What will we do for an economy? Finance? Currency? Domestic defense? Protection against tyranny from ourselves? All this and more…to be covered in Unit 3

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