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Global Studies & Geography Regents Review. Mr. Bell 2011. Anti-Semitism . Hatred towards Jews. Apartheid. South African government policy calling for separation of races. Appeasement. Policy of giving into the demands of an aggressor in order to keep peace. Aztecs.

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Global Studies & Geography Regents Review

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Global Studies & GeographyRegents Review

Mr. Bell

2011


Anti-Semitism

  • Hatred towards Jews


Apartheid

  • South African government policy calling for separation of races


Appeasement

  • Policy of giving into the demands of an aggressor in order to keep peace


Aztecs

  • Native American Tribe located in Central Mexico, defeated by Hernan Cortes


Balance of Power

  • Distribution of political and economic power that prevents any one nation from becoming too powerful

  • Goal of Congress of Vienna following Napoleon’s Reign


Bolsheviks

  • Members of the 1917 Russian Revolutionary group who overthrew the Czar


Boxer Rebellion

  • Event in early 1900’s in which a group known as boxers assaulted foreign communities across china


Buddhism

  • Religion founded by Siddhartha Gautama in India

  • Major Beliefs:

    • Follow the Eight Fold Path to Nirvana

    • Reincarnation

    • To End suffering you must end your desires

      • Four Noble Truths


Byzantine Empire

  • In 476 AD the Western part of the Roman Empire collapsed, the Eastern part was renamed the Byzantine Empire


Caste System

  • Social class hierarchy in India


Chernobyl

  • 1986, Nuclear Power plant had a complete melt down in Soviet Union (Ukraine)


Civil Disobedience

  • The refusal to obey an unjust law

  • Made famous by Gandhi in South Africa and India


Code of Hammurabi

  • Written code of laws

  • Laws punished those found guilty harshly

    • “ an eye for an eye”


Code of Justinian

  • Emperor Justinian consolidated Roman Law into his own single code of laws for the Byzantine Empire


Cold War

  • Continuing tensions between the USA and USSR following World War II because of political and economic differences


Commercial Revolution

  • Change in business in Europe following the middle ages


Communism

  • Political policy that governed the USSR and many other nations during the Cold War

  • Father: Karl Marx

  • Characteristics:

    • Dictator

    • Censorship

    • No religion

    • Secret Police


Confucianism

  • Philosophy based on what Confucius saw as the basic order of the universe

    • Filial Piety: respect for your elders

    • Five Relationships

    • Harmony in society


Congress of Vienna

  • Conference held in 1815 among European diplomats that had the purpose of restoring order and stability to Europe


Counter Reformation

  • Catholic churches response to Martin Luther’s Protestant Reformation

    • Council of Trent

    • Stop the sale of indulgences

    • St Ignatius of Loyola


Crusades

  • Series of religious wars fought between Christians and Muslims over the holy land

    • Jerusalem


Cuban Missile Crisis

  • In 1962, US president orders naval blockade of Cuba to prohibit the Soviet Union from shipping nuclear missile to island …World was on brink on nuclear war


Cuban Revolution

  • Fidel Castro toppled Cuban dictator and set up a communist country supported by USSR


Cultural Revolution

  • Mao’s disastrous attempt to reinvigorate Communism , red guard forced educated people to work on farms, destroyed old culture


Deforestation

  • Destruction of forests, especially tropical rain forest


Desertification

  • The change from farmable land to deserts


Developing Nations

  • Nation with limited resources that faces obstacles in achieving modern industrial economies , referred to sometimes as third world nations


Divine Right

  • Right to rule given by god


Encomienda System

  • System established by Spanish in America allowing colonists to demand labor or tribute from native Americans.


Enlightenment

  • Period in 1700’s when people began to reject traditional ideas


European Union

  • Expansion of the European Community in the 1980’s and 1990’s.

    • European Community- group of nations established in 1957 to expand trade in Europe


Feudalism

  • System of government in which local lords controlled their own lands but owe military service to the king


Final Solution

  • Hitler’s plan to exterminate all Jews who existed in Europe


French Revolution

  • Revolution of poor peasants against the King of France…

  • Because…

    • M- Monarchy weak

    • E- Enlightenment ideas

    • A- American Revolution

    • T- Taxes and third estate


Genocide

  • Attempt to destroy an entire ethnic or religious group


Glasnost

  • Period of openness between Soviet Union and USA in mid 1980’ by Mikhail Gorbachev


Global Warming

  • Theory that the earth is heating up because of pollution and the green house effect.


Great Leap Forward

  • Program began by Mao Zedong in China in 1958 to increase agricultural and industrial output


Green Revolution

  • Development of new varieties of plants and improved agricultural techniques that resulted in greatly increased crop yields


Gulf War

  • War fought in the 1990’s between Iraq and a coalition force led by United States to liberate Kuwait from Iraq


Gupta Empire

  • Golden Age of Indian History


Hinduism

  • Religion founded in India, a polytheistic religion

  • Beliefs:

    • Reincarnation

    • Karma

    • dharma


Hiroshima /Nagasaki

  • Cities that atomic bomb was dropped on to end World War II in Pacific


Holocaust

  • Act of genocide by Nazi Germany during World War II


(IRA) Irish Republic Army

  • Terrorist organization fighting for an independent Ireland in Northern Ireland


Inca Empire

  • Pre Columbian Civilization found in South America, in the area of Peru and Chile. Known for their extensive road system and terrace farming..


Indus River valley

  • One of the first major civilizations of the world, found in India

    • Known for plumbing system


Industrial Revolution

  • Period in which production of goods changed from hand made tools to using power driven machines

  • Causes:

    • Geography

    • Raw materials

    • Population growth

    • capital to invest

  • Effects

    • Capitalism vs. Socialism

    • New class structure

    • Urbanization

    • Working conditions

    • Improved transportation


Intifada

  • Uprising of young Palestinians in Israel in the 1980’s


Islamic Fundamentalism

  • Movement by Muslim reformers who oppose westernization


Laissez faire

  • Policy allowing business to operate without government interference


League of Nations

  • Group of more than 40 countries formed after World War I, very weak…


Mandate of Heaven

  • Right to rule given by God

    • Chinese


Marshall Plan

  • Plan to help rebuild Europe following World War II


Maurya Empire

  • first united Indian empire


Maya

  • Pre-Columbian society in Central America, highly advanced society


Meiji Restoration

  • Modernization of Japan under the Meiji Emperor


Mexican Revolution

  • Overthrow of Dictator Porfirio Diaz because of the uneven distribution of wealth in country

  • Effects:

    • Constitution

    • Social reforms

    • Development of economy


Middle Ages

  • Time period in history between 500 Ad and 1500 AD; time of great darkness, no education, people lived in fear


Mongols

  • Group of nomadic horseback men, who controlled the worlds largest empire stretching from China to Constantinople


Monotheism

  • Belief in one god

    • Christianity

    • Judaism

    • Islam


NATO

  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization – a pact between western nations who pledged to support each other if any member was attacked


NAFTA

  • North American Free Trade Agreement- allows countries in North America to trade with each other freely


New Economic Policy

  • VI Lenin’s economic policy to help fix economic problems in Soviet Union


Ninety-Five Theses

  • Martin Luther’s 95 arguments against the Catholic Church, led to the Protestant Reformation


OPEC

  • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries- trade group that sets world oil prices by controlling oil production

    • Saudi Arabia

    • Venezuela

    • Iran

    • Iraq

    • Kuwait


Open Door policy

  • When the United States forced the opening of trade with Japan in the late 1800’s


PLO

  • Palestinian Liberation Organization- wants a home state for the Palestinians ‘

    • Used terrorists acts in order to prove point and raise attention to issue.


Pan-Arabism

  • Movement emphasizing the unity for all Arab people


Perestroika

  • Restructuring of Soviet government under Mikhail Gorbachev in the 1980’s


Qu’ran

  • Holy book of Islam


Reformation

  • Martin Luther's movement protesting the teachings of the catholic church


Renaissance

  • Period of rebirth in education throughout Europe in the 1600’s


Russification

  • Attempt by Russia to make all groups of people under Russian rule to think , act and believe as Russians


Scientific Revolution

  • Period in the 1500’s and 1600’s in which scientists challenged traditional ideas and relied on observation and experimentation


Shogun

  • In Japanese Feudal society military commander whom held real power


Social Darwinism

  • Justification for the White Europeans to imperialize Africa, because the white race was the fittest to survive


Tang & Song Dynasty

  • Golden age of Chinese history, invented many great things we still use today

    • Gunpowder


Tiananmen Square Protests

  • Student protests for a pro democracy government in China (1989), led to government crack down on protesters


Trans Atlantic slave trade

  • The slave trade that took place between Africa and the Americas in the 16 and 1700’s


Treaty of Versailles

  • Treaty that was signed at the end of the Great War

    • Leads to WWII

    • Creates League of Nations

    • Punishes Germany for war


Truman Doctrine

  • Economic and military program of United States designed to help other countries resist Soviet aggression

    • Idea of containment


Warsaw Pact

  • Defensive alliance among soviet union and its satellite promising mutual military cooperation


Young Turks

  • Movement established by Turks in the late 1800’s to reform ottoman empire

    • Mustafa Kemal – westernize Ottoman Empire


Tribalism

  • In Africa, when you have greater allegiances to your tribe than your nation


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