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System Architecting. Conventional Engineering Design Paradigm. Traditional engineering tends to jump to design solutions very early in the process of problem definition (and solving) and fixes the unintended emergence as and when it occurs

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System architecting

System Architecting

CPDA – D6 Foundation of Systems Engineering


Conventional engineering design paradigm

Conventional Engineering Design Paradigm

  • Traditional engineering tends to jump to design solutions very early in the process of problem definition (and solving) and fixes the unintended emergence as and when it occurs

  • There is a strong pre-disposition to re-use and adapt existing design solutions

  • This commitment to a specific solution architecture occurs early in the requirements definition stage and is very difficult to depart from

  • Innovation is as often driven by technical enthusiasm as much as by user need

  • The operating paradigm is generally evolutionary – stepwise advance generation by generation.

In conventional system design The System of Interest

and its configuration are the Centre of Interest

CPDA – D6 Foundation of Systems Engineering


The focus is on the system to be deployed

The Focus Is On The System To Be Deployed

Source : Martin, J., 2004, The Seven Samurai of Systems Engineering,

INCOSE International Conference – on UWEOnline

Source : Martin, J., 2004, The Seven Samurai of Systems Engineering,

INCOSE International Conference – on UWEOnline

CPDA – D6 Foundation of Systems Engineering


The focus is on the system to be deployed1

The Focus Is On The System To Be Deployed

The System of Interest

Source : Martin, J., 2004, The Seven Samurai of Systems Engineering,

INCOSE International Conference – on UWEOnline

Source : Martin, J., 2004, The Seven Samurai of Systems Engineering,

INCOSE International Conference – on UWEOnline

CPDA – D6 Foundation of Systems Engineering


System architecting

The Focus is Generally on the System of Interest

Containing system

Look at the Interactions

System

System

System of Interest

A

B

System

What are the interactions required with the System of Interest

These are the STAKEHOLDER or USER REQUIREMENTS

CPDA – D6 Foundation of Systems Engineering


However we need to understand the interactions and opportunities

However We Need to Understand The Interactions and Opportunities

Containing system

Do the Stakeholders Know?

Look at the Interactions

System

But Is the Boundary Right?

System

First Treat the

System of Interest

as a Black Box

System of Interest

A

B

System

White box analysis

CPDA – D6 Foundation of Systems Engineering


Explore the robustness of the requirements

Explore The Robustness of the Requirements

  • Perceptions of need are often framed against a conscious or unconscious pre-disposition to a particular solution

    • Challenge that by proposing alternate solutions to explore the stated needs

    • If the requirements appear stable perhaps challenge that stability with bizarre alternatives

  • Try and mine the stated requirements as initially stated to bring out the underlying needs (or aspiration) that the candidate has revealed

  • A test for a very robust requirement is that it survives intact with a wide variety of candidate solutions

  • If not – why not?

CPDA – D6 Foundation of Systems Engineering


The use of candidates solutions can facilitate understanding

Containing system

Containing system

Containing system

Containing system

Look at the Interactions

Look at the Interactions

Look at the Interactions

Look at the Interactions

System

System

System

System

System

System

System

System

First Treat the

System of Interest

as a Black Box

First Treat the

System of Interest

as a Black Box

First Treat the

System of Interest

as a Black Box

First Treat the

System of Interest

as a Black Box

System of Interest

System of Interest

System of Interest

System of Interest

A

A

A

A

B

B

B

B

System

System

System

System

The Use of Candidates Solutions Can Facilitate Understanding

If some candidates do not meet the emerging stakeholder

requirements – they have still served a purpose!!

CPDA – D6 Foundation of Systems Engineering


But be careful

But Be Careful……..

  • The candidate solutions considered are often only increments of the existing solutions

    • Extension of an existing design

    • A development of what the customer already uses

  • The frame of reference often constrains the solution space to an low margin incremental opportunity

    • Consider taking the analysis up a level to consider the “System of Systems” issues

    • Question the stakeholders to understand their “stakeholders” needs – the childlike “Why?” has its merits!

So Where Is This Particularly Important?

CPDA – D6 Foundation of Systems Engineering


Strategic enterprise architecting airbus

Strategic (Enterprise) Architecting - Airbus

CPDA – D6 Foundation of Systems Engineering


System architecting

Mechanical Power

Mechanical Power

Mechanical Power

Mechanical Power

Command

Command

Command

Command

Electrical Power

Electrical Power

Electrical Power

Electrical Power

Integrated

Integrated

Integrated

Integrated

Integrated

Hydraulic Power

Hydraulic Power

Hydraulic Power

Hydraulic Power

Power

Power

Power

Power

Power

Fuel

Fuel

Fuel

Fuel

Systems

Systems

Systems

Systems

Systems

Bleed

Bleed

Bleed

Bleed

Solutions

Solutions

Solutions

Solutions

Solutions

Thrust

Thrust

Thrust

Thrust

Engine Health Data

Engine Health Data

Engine Health Data

Engine Health Data

Air

Air

Air

Air

Flight Data

Flight Data

Flight Data

Flight Data

Customer Outputs

Customer Outputs

Rolls

Rolls

-

-

Royce Design Authority

Royce Design Authority

Not Rolls

Not Rolls

-

-

Royce Design Authority

Royce Design Authority

Integrated Power Systems – Rolls Royce

Conventional Power System

  • Engine provides thrust plus mechanical & pneumatic power.

  • Aircraft systems transform mechanical power into electrical/hydraulic power.

  • System components individually optimised, system functionally integrated.

Integrated Power System

  • IPS provides thrust plus mechanical, electrical, pneumatic & hydraulic power.

  • Aircraft systems define demand for power which is interpreted by the IPS Resource Manager.

  • System components are designed to deliver optimal system performance.

Source : INCOSE BLG Presentation – Sept 2004 – Gordon Warnes, Rolls Royce

CPDA – D6 Foundation of Systems Engineering


Candidate architecture

Candidate Architecture

  • Getting this right is critical to success

  • Modelling can support decision-making

  • “Expert” viewpoints are a critical success factor

  • The further the departure from the norm the higher the risks but offset by potentially much higher returns

  • Early Risk Reduction becomes dominant paradigm for innovative lines of development

CPDA – D6 Foundation of Systems Engineering


To take the analysis further we need to open the box and start testing the architecture

To Take the Analysis Further We Need to Open the Box and Start Testing the Architecture

Now We Need to Open the Box

Containing system

System

System

System of Interest

A

B

System

White box analysis

CPDA – D6 Foundation of Systems Engineering


With the candidate architectures

With the Candidate Architectures

  • Once the initial stakeholder requirements (including in house ones) are exposed the candidate systems of interest can then be explored from a wide range of viewpoints

    • Manufacture – Does it use the existing infrastructure?

    • Use – Will the customer need to collaborate?

    • Support – Who is providing it?

    • Maintenance – Are we paying?

    • Misuse – Is it vulnerable?

    • Retirement – Can we recycle/reuse it?

    • Disposal – Are there new hazards?

    • etc.?????

  • The ambition is to achieve an understanding of both desirable and undesirable interactions.

These will be dependent on the system architecture

ultimately chosen and in reality are often determinants of it

CPDA – D6 Foundation of Systems Engineering


Remember rich pictures help to illuminate interactions

GENERAL COMMITTEE

employers

Too much

work due to

increased

role

How can we

get a better

service?

We need to

automate

members

education secretary

secretary

100 test centres

manual

filing system

I hope we

don’t get

computers

exams

accountant

students

education assistant

D E Avison & G Fitzgerald, Information Systems Development, 2nd ed (McGraw-Hill, 1995),Fig 4.2

Remember Rich Pictures Help to Illuminate Interactions

CPDA – D6 Foundation of Systems Engineering


Life cycle views

Life-Cycle Views

  • What is required of the system of interest over time

    • What is the proposed system replacing?

      • What is its predecessor doing

      • What new is needed

    • When will it be needed?

    • How will it be introduced?

    • How will it be supported?

    • When will it be replaced?

Again some of these issues will reveal constraints which

will ultimately lead to certain candidates being unviable

CPDA – D6 Foundation of Systems Engineering


The systems engineering life cycle standard iso15288

The Systems Engineering Life- Cycle Standard – ISO15288

Need to be Considered at the Stakeholder Requirements

and Architecting Stages

CPDA – D6 Foundation of Systems Engineering


So now we know what s wanted what next system requirements

Who designs these?

Who designs these?

So Now We Know What’s Wanted – What Next? – System Requirements

Containing system

Attributes of A-B interactions

Attributes of interactions with other systems

System

Attributes of A

Attributes of B

System

System of Interest

A

B

System

CPDA – D6 Foundation of Systems Engineering


So now we know what s wanted what next system requirements1

So Now We Know What’s Wanted – What Next – System Requirements

We now have more Black Boxes at a Lower Level in the Hierarchy!!

Containing system

System

System

System of Interest

Black Box 1

Black Box 2

System

WHITE BOX

CPDA – D6 Foundation of Systems Engineering


Developing the systems resqirement document srd often forms part of a concept study

Developing the Systems Resqirement Document (SRD) Often Forms Part of a Concept Study

  • SRD Development is a fluid process

  • Often driven by Simulation, Modelling, Scenario Investigation, Review of Technology Options

  • The objective is to determine the risk, cost, return balance to develop a realistic SRD which can be costed

  • This phase is often undertaken in a separate contract often led be a party who is barred from bidding for the main contract

  • In a non-contractual environment it may be led by a team of experts drawn from the lead company and its suppliers and run as a discrete activity

CPDA – D6 Foundation of Systems Engineering


A typical process for system requirements maturation

A Typical Process for System Requirements Maturation

Note The Feedback Loop

CPDA – D6 Foundation of Systems Engineering


Heuristics guides can be used to assist architectural development a challenge

Heuristics (Guides) Can Be Used to Assist Architectural Development - A Challenge!!

  • The team that created and built the present successful product is often the best for its evolution but seldom for creating its replacement

  • If you don’t understand the present system you can’t be sure you’re re-architecting a better one

  • When implementing a change keep some elements constant to provide an anchor point

Source : Maier, M. and Rechtin, E (2003); The Art of Systems Architecting, CRC Press

CPDA – D6 Foundation of Systems Engineering


Heuristics guides can be used to assist architectural development a challenge1

Heuristics (Guides) Can Be Used to Assist Architectural Development - A Challenge!!

  • A good design has benefits in more than one area

  • System quality is defined in terms of customer satisfaction not requirements satisfaction

  • If you think your design is perfect it is only because you haven’t shown it to someone else

  • “Proven” and “State of the Art” are mutually exclusive qualities

Source : Maier, M. and Rechtin, E (2003); The Art of Systems Architecting, CRC Press

CPDA – D6 Foundation of Systems Engineering


You will find hundreds of these in maier and rechtin s book

You will find hundreds of these in Maier and Rechtin’s book!!

However the production of a viable system still depends on engineering the detail right……………..

CPDA – D6 Foundation of Systems Engineering


System architecting

Reliability Model

“Customer”

Requirement

URD

Determine failure

modes & mechanisms

FMEA

CURRENT_PRICES

Intelligent

SEEDS

BUDGET

WEATHER

Lawn mower

SOIL_QUALITY

PURCHASED_FERTILIZER

PURCHASE

ü

Operational ...

Functional

…..

Non - Functional

….

PURCHASED_SEEDS

1

PLANTS

CULTIVATE

1

Textual Analysis

2

WATER

PURCHASED_HEALTH_ITEMS

Determine design reliability

HEALTH_ITEMS

Fault Tree Analysis

PICK

VEGETABLE

COMPOST

VEGETABLES

Capture stated customer

requirements and determine

Key Requirements

3

DIAGRAM 0

supply

ü

ü

2.1

EXTRACT

HOME_GROWN_SEED

SEED

4

machine

Viewpoint Analysis

Criteria

cutting

user

Material

M’fcture

Time to

Reliability

Safety

Load

Overall

maintenance

Determine product/system

functionality Y = f and

Structure requirements

process

2.2

interaction

ü

ü

cost

cost

produce

carrying

Satisfaction

QFD 2

Update

Functional Model

DOORS

Functional Modelling

Weighting

0.10

0.20

0.05

0.25

0.3

0.1

1.0

Requirements-concept solution compliance

and determine sub system targets

2.3

ü

ü

Develop a functional model of

the product/system Y= f(x)

to identify logical interfaces

Schemes

Generate

DOORS

database

Decision Matrix

internal

Built-up

supply

90%

80%

80%

90%

80%

90%

CURRENT_PRICES

navigation

cutting

SEEDS

management

BUDGET

plates

power

WEATHER

2.4

Evaluate whole concepts

against CTQs for further

down-selection

ü

ü

SOIL_QUALITY

PURCHASED_FERTILIZER

welded

PURCHASE

PURCHASED_SEEDS

1

9

16

4

22.5

24

9

84.5

PLANTS

CULTIVATE

80%

50%

75%

80%

80%

80%

2

PURCHASED_HEALTH_ITEMS

WATER

Cast hook

HEALTH_ITEMS

Acceptance

Test Spec

10

10

3.7

20

24

8

75.7

Built-up

90%

90%

90%

90%

80%

90%

PICK

Generate

acceptance

criteria

VEGETABLE

COMPOST

VEGETABLES

3

ü

2.5

ü

plates

DIAGRAM 0

EXTRACT

HOME_GROWN_SEED

collect

SEED

Receiving

Function

Sensitivity

to flow

riveted

Flow

4

determine

sense

sense

drive and

9

18

4.5

22.5

24

9

86.5

Sensitivity Analysis

X 1.1 

y 1.2 

w 2.2.1 

u 2.3.1

etc

QFD 1

Function Means Analysis

cut grass

grass

position

obstacles

lawn state

manoeuvre

x

cuttings

2.6

x

Assess the functional sensitivity

and potential functional failure

modes to give an early risk

assessment

x

x

Identify means of

achieving functionality

Containment

Card reader

Optional Lan

Wipe clean

Coin handling

Key pad

Display

Design

Requirements

Whole concept

Selection

Importance to Customer

Customer

Requirements

Easy to use

4

Features

Multi-language

3

3

5

Coin/card/credit

5

Durable

Determination of whole

concept solutions

Reliable

4

Operation

N2 Analysis

self

Cleans easily

2

learning

Maintainable

5

monitor

European

Arabic

95%

validation

16 max

1M ops

Assess degree of natural functional

binding and coupling to identify natural

Architecture and system redundancy

3 min

min ingress

All standard

500k inserts

luminosity

1kN shock

Target values

Correlate and cross check

requirements for completeness

and consistency

Technical competitive

assessment

Importance Weighting

39

82

58

139

126

50

18

Once The Architecture Is Set (or Postulated) Then The Conventional SE Tools Come into Play To Design, Develop and Verify

Source : INCOSE BLG Presentation – Sept 2004 – Gordon Warnes, Rolls Royce

CPDA – D6 Foundation of Systems Engineering


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