Hazard mapping and modeling
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Supporting Emergency Response Operations using GIS and Modeling. Hazard Mapping and Modeling . Objectives. Explain the development and use of GIS and modeling in supporting emergency response operations.

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Hazard Mapping and Modeling

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Hazard mapping and modeling

Supporting Emergency Response Operations using GIS and Modeling

Hazard Mapping and Modeling

Session 13



  • Explain the development and use of GIS and modeling in supporting emergency response operations.

  • Identify and explain what spatial information and tools are needed in Emergency Response

  • Explain the organizational requirements for GIS support in emergency operations

Session 13

Development of gis in modeling emergency response operations

Development of GIS in Modeling Emergency Response Operations

  • GIS has been used by state emergency management agencies in disaster response since Hurricane Andrew in 1992.

  • Remote sensing has been used during the last few years by state and local agencies.

  • Maps are a key element in communicating complex data for decision making and for public information

  • Data was provided to state and local agencies in support of emergency response activities following September 11, 2001.

  • Examples include Airborne LIDAR and high resolution images.

Session 13

Gis applications in supporting emergency response operations include

GIS Applications in Supporting Emergency Response Operations Include:

  • Hazard detection

  • Identifying vulnerabilities

  • Determining critical needs in the aftermath of disasters

  • Developing evacuation routes

  • Damage assessment mapping

  • Risk perception and communication.

Session 13

Ad hoc solutions to collect remote sensing data

Ad Hoc Solutions to Collect Remote Sensing Data

  • The solution for effective collection, analysis and use of remotely sensed data for emergency response, cleanup and recovery from a hazard event is a loosely structured and ad hoc approach.

  • The structure for acquiring and using mapping and modeling data unfolds as the event develops.

  • The window of opportunity for emergency response is very short and roughly 72 hours.

Session 13

Displaying gis information for emergency operations

Displaying GIS Information for Emergency Operations

  • Disaster forecasting showing the extent and the areas to be impacted by a disaster

  • Vulnerability analysis examining information on critical sites (hospitals, shelters, dams, or other critical facilities for a potential disaster).

  • Damage assessments showing actual impacts

  • Personnel resources including the contact information, location and potential use of resources.

  • Resource inventory providing vital information for supplies, equipment and other items necessary in an emergency response.

  • Critical infrastructure (transportation, utilities, medical and other vital sites for emergency response and recovery).

  • Mass care and shelters

Session 13

Geospatial data is needed in the following applications

Geospatial Data is Needed in the Following Applications

  • Event mapping (prediction and warning)

  • Response coordination and resource allocation

  • Damage assessment

  • Environmental monitoring

  • Risk assessment

  • Risk Communication

  • Relief and resource locations

  • Identification of vulnerable populations

  • Lifeline status

  • Evacuation efforts and status of transportation routes

Session 13

Spatial information tools and technology in emergency response

Spatial Information Tools and Technology in Emergency Response

  • Widely available at the state and local levels

Session 13



  • What type of geo-spatial data is needed in emergency response?

    • Transportation infrastructure (accurate street and road coverage with street names and address ranges)

    • Landcover (land-use classifications)

    • Terrain (high resolution USGS DEM using LIDAR)

    • Hydrography

    • Local parcel data with land-use classifications and addresses

    • Demographic information including distribution

Session 13



  • How can the data be obtained to support emergency response activities?

    • Planning and obtaining data prior to a disaster is critical.

    • Other jurisdictions should be contacted for data layers appropriate for emergency response.

    • FEMA will provide data to state and local jurisdictions as part of the overall emergency response.

Session 13

Emergency impact data collected immediately following the disaster event

Emergency Impact Data (collected immediately following the disaster event)

  • Weather conditions

  • Flood inundation or nature and extent of the hazard event

  • Status of lifelines and other critical infrastructure (utilities, transportation networks, levees & dams)

  • Damage to buildings, critical property, environmental impacts

Session 13

Time expectancy of spatial data

Time Expectancy of Spatial Data

  • Much of the data is needed within 24 hours of the disaster event

    • In place monitoring is critical to data collection

    • Remote sensing imaging is needed immediately

Session 13

Sources of remote sensing data

Sources of Remote Sensing Data

  • Digital Globe (Quickbird)

  • Image America

  • SPOT


  • Radarsat



  • Landsat

  • LIDAR from public and private providers

Session 13

Uses of remote sensing data

Uses of Remote Sensing Data

  • Define the nature and extent of the risk zone

  • Weather conditions

  • Crop, vegetation, building and other environmental damage

  • Status of lifelines

  • Debris characteristics

Session 13

Barriers to using remote sensing data

Barriers to Using Remote Sensing Data

  • Price

  • Accuracy of the data

  • Spatial resolution

  • Time to collect and process the data

  • Technical skills of users

Session 13

Barriers to utilizing real time modeling in disaster response

Barriers to Utilizing Real Time Modeling in Disaster Response

  • Processing time of the program

  • Complexity of data input

  • Technical skills required of the program

  • Spatial resolution of the model outputs

  • Accuracy of the model results (limited if any model verification)

  • Price of the modeling program

Session 13

Successful applications of gis and modeling technologies

Successful Applications of GIS and Modeling Technologies

  • Baseline data must be current and available

  • Personnel must be trained

  • Software must be integrated

  • Up-to-date computers

  • Facilitate sharing of digital information

Session 13



  • What advantages do outside providers bring to emergency responses that a designated staff member might provide over designating an internal staff member?

Session 13



  • What types of organizational structure are needed for effective use of GIS in emergency response?

Session 13

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