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Cement Mercury Subproject. David Read Cement Subproject Manager Bureau of Air Regulation. Florida Cement Industry. 10,000,000 tons per year clinker Ten cement kilns Demand is down Five in operation Two are temporarily down Three at/near startup. Suwannee American. Vulcan. American.

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David Read Cement Subproject Manager Bureau of Air Regulation

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David read cement subproject manager bureau of air regulation

Cement Mercury Subproject

David Read

Cement Subproject ManagerBureau of Air Regulation


Florida cement industry

Florida Cement Industry

10,000,000 tons per year clinker

Ten cement kilns

Demand is down

Five in operation

Two are temporarily down

Three at/near startup

Suwannee American

Vulcan

American

CEMEX N. Brooksville

CEMEX S. Brooksville

Titan America

CEMEX Miami


Fuel and materials hg plant a concentrations in parts per billion ppb

Fuel and Materials Hg – Plant AConcentrations in parts per billion (ppb)


Fuel and materials hg plant a contribution to total emissions in percent

Fuel and Materials Hg – Plant AContribution to total emissions in percent (%)


Epa and florida kiln emission estimates in pounds lb of hg per million tons of clinker

EPA and Florida Kiln Emission Estimatesin pounds (lb) of Hg per million tons of clinker

Highest ~ 3,300 lb/million tons clinker

40

Best 12% by EPA ranking

Lowest ~ 10 lb/million tons clinker


Raw mill on most hg captured stored

Raw Mill Off – Hg Emitted

Raw Mill On – Most Hg Captured, Stored

LOTS

Little

Hg out

Filter

LEGEND

Gas

Solid

Preheater Exhaust

Filter Dust

Separators

Preheater Feed

FuelHg in

Meal & Hg Stored

CoalHg in

RAW

MEAL

SILO

(Hg)

Meal & Hg Removed

ClinkerNo Hg out

Raw Mill

(to Cement Mill)

Hg in

(from Raw Mix)


David read cement subproject manager bureau of air regulation

Hg Control Options

  • Limit high carbon coal ash, raw materials/fuels Hg

  • Add-on control equipment prior to stack

    • Baghouse, activated carbon (Norcem Brevik and Ash Grove Durkee, Oregon)

    • Wet Scrubber (such as for SO2 in TXI Midlothian, Holcim Holly Hill)

  • Heat and return filter dust, recover Hg in activated carbon

    • Much smaller gas volume than end-of-process controls (F.L. Smidth offers)

  • Heat problem fuels/material, recover Hg in activated carbon

    • Also much smaller volume (F.L. Smidth describes in patent)

  • Filter dust shuttling to cement product

    • Typically practiced in some European countries (allowed in Florida?)


David read cement subproject manager bureau of air regulation

Filter Dust Shuttling – Mill Off

Hg Removed by Scrubber

Problem Raw Material/Fuel Treatment

Hg Removal by Activated Carbon

Filter Dust Treatment, Return

Some

Hg out

Scrubber

Filter

LEGEND

Gas

Solid

Hg in

Most

(Filter Dust)

Some

Hg out

Hg out

Mercury

Hg out

Hg in

(to Cement Mill)

Plant

(Alternate

Hg

Mercury

Material/Fuel)

Removed

Plant

(Filter Dust)

Some

Hg in

Hg

(fuel)

Removed

RAW

MEAL

SILO

Hg in

(coal)

(Hg Removed)

(Hg Stored)

No Hg out

(to Cement Mill)

Hg in

(from Raw Mix)


Comparison of florida kilns with best 12 at 25 50 and 75 reduction from present estimates

Comparison of Florida Kilns with Best 12% at 25, 50, and 75% reduction from present estimates


Florida cement industry summary

Florida Cement Industry Summary

  • Florida kilns emit ~ 100 lb Hg/million tons clinker

  • At full capacity emissions will be ~ 1,000 lb Hg/year

  • A well-controlled coal power unit emits < 20 lb Hg/year

  • EPA will propose draft limit by March 31, 2009

  • May need significant reductions to achieve EPA limit

  • Start with more careful materials and fuel selection

  • Avoid high carbon fly ash (abated power plant emissions)

  • Shuttle filter dust to product to extent cement meets specs

  • Treat problem alternative fuels/materials

  • Only then get to end-of-process add-on controls


Additional thoughts

Additional Thoughts

Need better data at some existing kilns

Material testing, sorbent traps, Hg-CEMS

Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) driver

May require limits beyond EPA MACT*

We ought to try out dust shuttling first

We will visit FDOT** to see if allowed

* Maximum Achievable Control Technology

**Florida Department of Transportation


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