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Goal 5:. Gene Mutations. Mutation- permanent change in the DNA of an organism Germ Line mutations- occur in gametes Somatic mutations- occurs in body cells Lethal mutations- mutations that cause death before birth. II. Specific types of mutations

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Goal 5

Goal 5:

Gene Mutations



II. Specific types of mutations

A. Chromosome mutations - changes in the chromosome or addition/loss of a chromosome


  • 1. Deletion- loss of a piece of chromosome

  • 2. Inversion - chromosome will switch parts of a chromosome

    • Results in pieces of chromosomes in backwards order


3. Translocation-a piece of chromosome breaks off and reattaches to another chromosome

Ex: a piece of chromosome 9 breaking off and attaching to chromosome 22, this is shown to cause leukemia

4. Duplication – addition of a piece of chromosome


Point mutations
Point Mutations

Occur at a single point in the DNA sequence

Usually change 1 amino acid in the protein


Substitution
Substitution:

Substitute one base for another.

THE DOG BIT THE CAT

THE DOG BIT THE CAR

AAA GGG CCC AAA TTT

AAA GGG CCC AAA TTA


Frame shift mutations
Frame shift Mutations

Shift the 3-letter groupings over by 1 letter

Affects every amino acid that follows the mutation

Can make a protein unable to perform normal functions


INSERTION:

Insert 1 base

THE DOG BIT THE CAT

THE DOG BBI TTH ECA T

AAA GGG CCC AAA TTT

AAA GGG CCC CAA ATT T


DELETION:

Delete 1 base

THE DOG BIT THE CAT

THE DOG ITT HEC AT

AAA GGG CCC AAA TTT

AAA GGG CCA AAT TA


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