Goal 5
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Goal 5:. Gene Mutations. Mutation- permanent change in the DNA of an organism Germ Line mutations- occur in gametes Somatic mutations- occurs in body cells Lethal mutations- mutations that cause death before birth. II. Specific types of mutations

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Goal 5:

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Goal 5:

Gene Mutations


  • Mutation- permanent change in the DNA of an organism

    • Germ Line mutations-occur in gametes

    • Somatic mutations-occurs in body cells

    • Lethal mutations-mutations that cause

  • death before birth


II. Specific types of mutations

A. Chromosome mutations - changes in the chromosome or addition/loss of a chromosome


  • 1. Deletion- loss of a piece of chromosome

  • 2. Inversion - chromosome will switch parts of a chromosome

    • Results in pieces of chromosomes in backwards order


3. Translocation-a piece of chromosome breaks off and reattaches to another chromosome

Ex: a piece of chromosome 9 breaking off and attaching to chromosome 22, this is shown to cause leukemia

4. Duplication – addition of a piece of chromosome


Point Mutations

Occur at a single point in the DNA sequence

Usually change 1 amino acid in the protein


Substitution:

Substitute one base for another.

THE DOG BIT THE CAT

THE DOG BIT THE CAR

AAA GGG CCC AAA TTT

AAA GGG CCC AAA TTA


Frame shift Mutations

Shift the 3-letter groupings over by 1 letter

Affects every amino acid that follows the mutation

Can make a protein unable to perform normal functions


INSERTION:

Insert 1 base

THE DOG BIT THE CAT

THE DOG BBI TTH ECA T

AAA GGG CCC AAA TTT

AAA GGG CCC CAA ATT T


DELETION:

Delete 1 base

THE DOG BIT THE CAT

THE DOG ITT HEC AT

AAA GGG CCC AAA TTT

AAA GGG CCA AAT TA


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