Reconstruction
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Reconstruction. Chapter 4, Section 3. First Day Survey. Edit name on front Cross off names or write nicknames On Lined side 1. One thing I like, or have liked about History Class 2. One thing I don’t like, or haven’t liked about History

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Reconstruction

Reconstruction

Chapter 4, Section 3


First day survey

First Day Survey

  • Edit name on front

    • Cross off names or write nicknames

  • On Lined side

    • 1. One thing I like, or have liked about History Class

    • 2. One thing I don’t like, or haven’t liked about History

    • 3. One thing I am excited (or kind of excited) to learn about this year in AMC

    • 4. If I could be ANYWHERE right now I’d be…

    • 5. The one thing everyone should know about me is…


Reconstruct

RECONSTRUCT

Vb

  • 1. to construct or form again; rebuild: to reconstruct a Greek vase from fragments

  • 2. to form a picture of (a crime, past event, etc) by piecing together evidence or acting out a version of what might have taken place

    N

    Reconstruction

    US history  the period after the Civil War when the South was reorganized and reintegrated into the Union (1865--77)


Aftermath of war

AFTERMATH OF WAR

  • HUMAN TOLL

    • North: 364,000

    • South: 260,000 (One Fifth of its Adult Men)

    • One out of 3 Southern Men were killed or wounded


Battlefield med kit

BATTLEFIELD MED KIT


1 out of 3 men killed or wounded

1 OUT OF 3 MEN KILLED OR WOUNDED


1 out of 3 men killed or wounded1

1 OUT OF 3 MENKILLED OR WOUNDED


1 out of 5 white men killed in south

1 OUT OF 5 WHITE MENKILLED IN SOUTH


1 out of 5 white men killed in south1

1 OUT OF 5 WHITE MEN KILLED IN SOUTH


1 out of 5 white men killed in south2

1 OUT OF 5 WHITE MENKILLED IN SOUTH


1 out of 5 white men killed in south3

1 OUT OF 5 WHITE MEN KILLED IN SOUTH


Aftermath of war1

AFTERMATH OF WAR

  • HUMAN TOLL

    • North: 364,000

    • South: 260,000 (One Fifth of its Adult Men)

    • One out of 3 Southern Men were killed or wounded

  • PHYSICAL TOLL

    • Two Thirds of Southern Shipping

    • 9,000 miles of railroads

    • One Third of all livestock

    • Value of Southern Farm Property Plunged 70 percent


The toll of war in the south

THE TOLL OF WAR IN THE SOUTH

  • BLACK SOUTHERNERS:

    • 4 million freed people were on their own in a region with slow economic recovery

    • Many were homeless and hungry

  • PLANTATION OWNERS

    • Planters lost slave labor worth $3 Billion

    • Abandoned Property Act of 1863 allowed federal government to seize $100 million in plantations and cotton

  • POOR WHITE SOUTHERNERS

    • No work because of competition from freedmen


Reconstruction1

Reconstruction

  • Reconstruction: the plan to rebuild the South

  • Lincoln’s Plan: “With Malice Towards None”

    1. PARDON: an official forgiveness of crime to any Confederate who would take an oath of allegiance to the Union and accept the end of slavery

    2. Denied pardons to anyone who killed African American POWs

    3. Each state to hold constitutional convention after 10%of voters in state had sworn allegiance to Union

    • No language of “readmit” to Union: they really never left


The end of lincoln s plan

The End of Lincoln’s Plan


Johnson s plan

Johnson’s Plan

  • Andrew Johnson

    • Former slave owner in South

    • Poor Tailor

    • Wife taught him how to

      read and write

    • Profound hatred of Rich Planters

  • “Presidential Reconstruction”

    1. Pardoned Southerners who pledged allegiance

    2. Permitted states to hold constitutional convention WITHOUT 10% allegiance

    3. States were required to ratify the 13th Amendment


Lincoln s plan v presidential plan

Lincoln’s Plan v. Presidential Plan

  • Presidential Plan reflected spirit of Lincoln’s plan BUT

    • Presidential more lenient

    • Although it OFFICIALLY denied pardons to Confederate Leaders, it issued any to those that asked


What is the 13 th amendment

WHAT IS THE 13TH AMENDMENT?

ABOLISHED SLAVERY!


Southern reaction

SOUTHERN REACTION

  • BLACK CODES:

    • Gave African Americans certain rights, but their intent was to keep the former slaves in a dependent position, give planters supply of cheap labor

      • Former slaves had to sign entire year contracts as plantation workers

      • Could not own guns

  • KU KLUX KLAN

    • Formed to maintain white control in the south

    • Terrorized African Americans


Congress takes control

CONGRESS TAKES CONTROL

  • At first most northerners supported Johnson’s Reconstruction plan

    • Eager for the war to be behind them

  • Soon upset over BLACK CODES

    • Strengthened the Radical Republicans: controlled both House and Senate

  • Civil Rights Act of 1866:

    Gave African Americans Citizenship and guaranteed them same legal rights as white American

    • Johnson vetoed bill

    • Ends moderate Republicans attempts to work with President


Radical reconstruction

RADICAL RECONSTRUCTION

  • Passed 14TH AMENDMENT

    • Required states to grant citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the United States”

    • Promised “equal protection of the laws”

    • Wrote the Civil Rights Act into the Constitution!

    • Radicals gained enough votes in Congress to take over Reconstruction

    • 1867 – 1868 Passed four Reconstruction Acts


Radical reconstruction1

RADICAL RECONSTRUCTION

  • Acts divided South into 5 military districts

  • Three Conditions for Readmission

    • Ratify the 14th Amendment

    • Write new state constitutions that guaranteed freedmen the right to vote

    • Form new governments to be elected by all male citizens, including African Americans

  • Afraid Johnson might use his authority to interfere with Reconstruction, Congress passed:


Tenure of office act of 1867

TENURE OF OFFICE ACT of 1867

  • Required Senate’s permission to remove any official whose appointment it had approved

  • Set off the final battle between President and Congress

  • Johnson thought it unconstitutional, and fired Secretary of War Edwin Stanton (an ally of the Republicans) to test it

  • Johnson Impeached for it!

  • Senate one vote short for removal.


Republicans in charge

REPUBLICANS IN CHARGE

  • To regain support lost during impeachment trials, Republicans chose war hero Ulysses S. Grant for presidential candidate

  • Popular vote was close

  • Half a million African American

    voters gave Grant the victory

    To protect African American

    Voting rights Republicans quickly

    Passed:


15 th amendment

15th Amendment

  • It is unconstitutional to deprive citizens the right to vote based on “race, color, or previous condition of servitude.


Reconstruction amendments

“Reconstruction Amendments”

  • 13th – Abolished Slavery

  • 14th – Citizenship

  • 15th – Voting Rights

  • Why do they HAVE to be in this order?


New governments in south

New Governments in South

  • Political Power in South shifted during Reconstruction

  • SCALAWAGS: White southerners who supported changes

  • CARPETBAGGERS:

    Northerners who came south

    to take part in political rebirth

    • Name refers to type

    • of suitcase made of carpet fabric


New governments in the south

New Governments in the South

  • Freedmen joined Scalawags and Carpetbaggers in the new governments

  • Nearly 700 African Americans served in state legislatures during Reconstruction

  • 16 were elected to Congress

  • New Government changes

    • Created region’s first public schools

    • Eliminated property requirements for voting and holding office

    • Made it illegal for railroads, hotels, public facilities to discriminate against African Americans


Responses to freedom

Responses to Freedom

  • Owning land was a symbol of freedom

  • Many landowners unwilling to sell land to former slaves – it would give them economic freedom

  • SHARECROPPING -- Freedmen could receive a share of their employer’s crop instead of wages

    • Employer provided land, seed, tools, mule, cabin

    • Sharecropper provided labor

  • TENANT FARMING -- farmers rented land from landowner

  • Hard for sharecroppers and tenant farmers to get out of poverty


Reconstruction ends

Reconstruction Ends

  • Violence plagued the South throughout Reconstruction

    • Ku Klux Klan and similar groups terrorized African American leaders, those who tried to vote, public officials

    • Planters, merchants, poor white farmers united to restore the old political and social order

    • POLL TAX: meant to keep Freedmen from voting

  • Congress passed Enforcement Acts to punish those preventing qualified citizens from voting

  • People dismayed that the army was needed to keep the peace in the South


Why does reconstruction end

Why Does Reconstruction End?

  • The North gets tired of helping

  • Reconstruction leaders die

  • New President pulls troops out of South


Reconstruction s impact

Reconstruction’s Impact

  • 14th and 15th Amendments

  • 15th Amendment led way to women’s votes

  • Consider Sharecropping, Tenant Farming, violence keeping African Americans from voting, white leadership regaining control in south etc.

  • After Reconstruction waned, was the South different from before the Civil War?

  • Who really won the Civil War?


Intellectual devotionals ids

Intellectual Devotionals (IDs)

  • Read the entire ID, including the Additional Facts

  • Circle words/phrases you don’t know

  • Underline the main ideas to the subject, or any information that answers the questions

  • Write answers, notes, or questions you have in the margins


Sharecropping id

Sharecropping ID

  • 1. Ideally, what was sharecropping supposed to provide the sharecropper and landowner?

  • 2. Realistically, what was wrong with sharecropping?

  • 3. Why did sharecropping end?

  • 4. How did Sharecropping negatively affect the South outside of its population


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