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Political Spectrum. Political Ideologies. Ideology : A connected set of beliefs about people and society, which generally consists of some of the following: a set of basic assumptions about human nature and society an interpretation of the past an explanation of the present

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Political spectrum

Political Spectrum


Political ideologies
Political Ideologies

  • Ideology: A connected set of beliefs about people and society, which generally consists of some of the following:

    • a set of basic assumptions about human nature and society

    • an interpretation of the past

    • an explanation of the present

    • a vision for the future

    • a goal for which to strive (usually Utopian) and a strategy to achieve this


Political ideologies1
Political Ideologies

  • heroes (martyrs, leaders, founding fathers, etc.) and rituals (pledges, anthems, sacred documents, etc.)

  • a strong emotional appeal

  • a simple, easily understood picture of the world, which claims to be the truth


Belief or ideology
Belief or Ideology?

  • Ideologies are social constructions rather than individual belief systems

  • for beliefs to be ideological… they must concern matters important to the group, and must be in some way functional in relation to it: they must serve to hold it together or to justify activities and attitudes characteristic of its members.

    (John Plamenatz, 1970)


Political ideologies2
Political Ideologies

  • Why have ideologies?

    • help people understand their society

    • allow people and governments to explain past actions

    • used by governments and societies to set future goals and policies


Political ideologies examples
Political Ideologies: Examples

  • liberalism

  • Nazism

  • fascism

  • communism

  • liberalism

  • anarchism

  • separatism

  • totalitarianism

  • conservatism

  • socialism

  • libertarianism

  • feminism

  • imperialism


Political spectrum1
Political Spectrum

  • Represents a range of political beliefs in society

  • Is used to study the similarities and differences among groups of people, governments and countries

  • Political scientists often classify societies by placing them on the political spectrum

  • A country’s position may change with a change in government


Political spectrum2
Political Spectrum

Authoritarian

Libertarian

Right

Left


The right
The “Right”

  • Moderate right: decentralized government

    traditional morals and values

    stern punishment for breaking laws

    protection of private property

  • Extreme right: usually associated with foreign dictatorships

    enforce rules, laws, norms with extreme force


The left
The “Left”

  • Moderate left: activist government

    believe traditional values are usually unfair to women and minorities

    government is responsible for helping the disadvantaged in society

    personal property can be used toward the public good

    government must protect freedom


  • Between moderate and extreme left

    Large governments where citizens pay large taxes in return for the provision of many necessary services

  • Extreme left: governments are repressive; may

    look like extreme right governments


Political ideologies in canada
Political Ideologies in Canada

  • Conservative Party

  • Reform Party and Canadian Conservative Reform Alliance Party (acronyms anyone?!)

  • Bloc Québécois

  • Liberal Party

  • New Democratic Party

  • Green Party


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