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C HAPTER 2. Computer Hardware. Chapter Contents. Section A: Data Representation and Digital Electronics Section B: Microprocessors and Memory Section C: Storage Devices Section D: Input and Output Devices. Section A: Data Representation and Digital Electronics. Data Representation

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C HAPTER 2

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C hapter 2

CHAPTER 2

Computer Hardware


Chapter contents

Chapter Contents

  • Section A: Data Representation and Digital Electronics

  • Section B: Microprocessors and Memory

  • Section C: Storage Devices

  • Section D: Input and Output Devices

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Section a data representation and digital electronics

Section A: Data Representation and Digital Electronics

  • Data Representation

  • Quantifying Bits and Bytes

  • Digital Electronics

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Data representation

Data Representation

  • Process of transforming diverse data into a form computers can use for processing

  • Digital devices work with distinct and separate data

  • Analog devices work with continuous data

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Data representation1

Data Representation

  • Numeric data

    • Binary number system

  • Character data

    • ASCII, Extended ASCII, and Unicode (not used in arithmetic operations)

  • Digitizing is the process of converting analog data into digital format

  • File headers contain information about the code used to represent file data

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Data representation2

Data Representation

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Quantifying bits and bytes

Quantifying Bits and Bytes

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Digital electronics

Digital Electronics

  • Bits take the form of electrical pulses that can travel over circuits

  • System unit

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Digital electronics1

Digital Electronics

  • An integrated circuit (computer chip) is a super-thin slice of semiconducting material packed with microscopic circuit elements

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Digital electronics2

Digital Electronics

  • The computer’s main circuit board is called the system board, or motherboard

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Section b microprocessors and memory

Section B: Microprocessors and Memory

  • Microprocessor Basics

  • Microprocessor Performance Factors

  • Today’s Microprocessors

  • Random Access Memory

  • Read-only Memory

  • CMOS Memory

  • Buying a Computer

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Microprocessor basics

Microprocessor Basics

  • A microprocessor is an integrated circuit designed to process instructions

    • ALU

    • Registers

    • Control unit

    • Instruction set

      (list of instructions

      a microprocessor

      can perform)

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Microprocessor performance factors

Microprocessor Performance Factors

  • Microprocessor clock (sets pace for executing instructions)

    • Megahertz (millions of cycles per second)

    • Gigahertz (billions of cycles per second)

  • Word size (# of bits a processor can manipulate at a time)

  • Cache (high speed memory where a processor can access data quicker than memory located elsewhere)

    • Level 1 cache (L1)

    • Level 2 cache (L2)

  • CISC vs. RISC technology

    • CISC- complex instruction set computer

    • RISC- reduced instruction set computer. RISC is faster than CISC

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Microprocessor performance factors1

Microprocessor Performance Factors

  • Serial processing- processor completes all steps in the instruction cycle before it begins to execute the next instruction

    • Pipelining

  • Parallel processing

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Microprocessor performance factors2

Microprocessor Performance Factors

  • Dual core processors contain the circuitry for two microprocessors

  • Benchmark tests gauge the overall speed of a microprocessor

  • A microprocessor can operate at full efficiency only if all components in the computer can handle the faster speeds.

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Today s microprocessors

Today’s Microprocessors

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Random access memory

Random Access Memory

  • Random Access Memory is a temporary holding area for data, application program instructions, and the operating system

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Random access memory1

Random Access Memory

  • Microscopic capacitors hold the bits that represent data

  • Most RAM is volatile

    • Requires electrical power to hold data

    • Usually consists of several chips

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Random access memory2

Random Access Memory

  • RAM capacity is expressed in megabytes or gigabytes

  • Personal computers typically feature between 128 MB and 2 GB of RAM

  • An area of the hard disk, called virtual memory, can be used if an application runs out of allocated RAM

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Random access memory3

Random Access Memory

  • RAM speed is often expressed in nanoseconds or megahertz

  • SDRAM is fast and relatively inexpensive

    • DDR

  • RDRAM is more expensive, and usually found in high-performance workstations

  • “Waiting room” for the processor

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Read only memory

Read-Only Memory

  • ROM is a type of memory circuitry that holds the computer’s startup routine

    • Permanent and non-volatile

  • The ROM BIOS tells the computer how to access to hard disk, find the operating system, and load it into RAM

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Cmos memory

CMOS Memory

  • Stores basic system information

  • More permanent than RAM, and less permanent than ROM

  • Requires very little power to hold data

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Buying a computer

Buying a Computer

  • Assess your budge

  • Think about how you plan to use your computer

  • Look at ads and visit online computer stores

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Section c storage devices

Section C: Storage Devices

  • Storage Basics

  • Floppy Disk Technology

  • Hard Disk Technology

  • Tape Storage

  • CD and DVD Technology

  • Solid State Storage

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Storage basics

Storage Basics

  • A storage medium contains data

  • A storage device records and retrieves data from a storage medium

    • Data gets copied from a storage device into RAM, where it waits to be processed

    • Processed data is held temporarily in RAM before it is copied to a storage medium

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Storage basics1

Storage Basics

  • Magnetic storage stores data by magnetizing microscopic particles on the disk or tape surface

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Storage basics2

Storage Basics

  • Optical storage stores data as microscopic light and dark spots (land and pits) on the disk surface

    • CD and DVD storage technologies

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Storage basics3

Storage Basics

  • Solid state storage technology stores data in a non-volatile, erasable, low-power chip

    • Some solid state storage requires a card reader to transfer data to or from a computer

    • Faster than optical or magnetic storage

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Storage basics4

Storage Basics

Most desktop computers have

several drive bays, some

accessible from outside the

case, and others—designed for

hard disk drives—without any

external access. Empty drive

bays are typically hidden from

view with a face plate.

CLICK TO START

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Storage basics5

Storage Basics

  • Versatility

  • Durability

  • Speed

    • Access time (often measured in milliseconds and is how long it takes a computer to locate data on storage medium and read it)

    • Random vs. sequential access

    • Data transfer rate

  • Capacity

    • Kilobytes (KB), megabytes (MB), and gigabytes frequently used today

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Floppy disk technology

Floppy Disk Technology

  • Used for standard HD DS disks and Zip disks

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Hard disk technology

Hard Disk Technology

Hard disk platters are sealed

inside the drive case or cartridge

to prevent dust and other

contaminants from interfering

with the read-write heads.

CLICK TO START

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Hard disk technology1

Hard Disk Technology

  • A controller positions the disk and read-write heads to locate data

    • SATA

    • Ultra ATA

    • EIDE

    • SCSI

  • Not as durable as many other storage technologies

    • Head crash

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Tape storage

Tape Storage

  • A tape backup stores a copy of the data on a hard disk on a magnetic tape

  • A tape is a sequential storage medium

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Cd and dvd technology

CD and DVD Technology

  • A CD can hold up to 80 minutes of music or 700 MB of data

  • A DVD can hold about 4.7 GB of data

  • A double-layer DVD can store 8.5 GB of data

  • HD-DVDs can store 15 GB

  • Blu-ray DVDs can store 25 GB

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Cd and dvd technology1

CD-DA

DVD-Video

CD-ROM

DVD-ROM

CD-R

DVD+R or DVD-R

CD-RW

DVD+RW or DVD-RW

CD and DVD Technology

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Cd and dvd technology2

CD and DVD Technology

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Solid state storage portable

Solid State Storage (Portable)

  • USB flash drive

  • CompactFlash (CF) cards

  • MultiMedia cards (MMC)

  • SecureDigital (SD)

  • SmartMedia (least durable)

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Section d input and output devices

Section D: Input and Output Devices

  • Basic Input Devices

  • Display Devices

  • Printers

  • Installing Peripheral Devices

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Basic input devices

Basic Input Devices

  • Keyboard

  • Pointing device

    • Pointing stick

    • Trackpad

    • Trackball

    • Joystick

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Display devices

Display Devices

  • A CRT display device uses a bulky glass tube (least expensive)

  • An LCD manipulates light within a layer of liquid crystal cells

  • Plasma screen technology illuminates lights arranged in a panel-like screen

  • On most monitors, the viewable image does not stretch to the edge of the screen

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Display devices1

Display Devices

  • Viewable image size

  • Dot pitch

  • Viewing angle width

  • Refresh rate

  • Color depth

  • Resolution

    • VGA, SVGA, XGA, SXGA, and UXGA

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Display devices2

Display Devices

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Display devices3

Display Devices

  • Graphics circuitry generates the signals for displaying an image on the screen

    • Integrated graphics

    • Graphics card

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Printers

Printers

  • An ink-jet printer has a nozzle-like print head that sprays ink onto paper

  • A laser printer works like a photocopier

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Printers1

Printers

Laser printers are a popular

technology when high-volume

output or good-quality printouts

are required.

CLICK TO START

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Printers2

Printers

  • Dot matrix printers produce characters and graphics by using a grid of fine wires

    • The wires strike a ribbon and the paper

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Printers3

Printers

  • Other printer technologies include solid ink printers, thermal transfer printers, and dye sublimation printers

  • Printer features

    • Resolution

    • Print speed

    • Duty cycle

    • Operating costs

    • Duplex capability

    • Memory

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Installing peripheral devices

Installing Peripheral Devices

  • The data bus moves data within the computer

  • The expansion bus is the segment of the data bus that extends between RAM and peripheral devices

  • Expansion cards are small circuit boards that give the computer additional capabilities

    • Expansion slot

      • ISA (Old technology. Slower devices, not found on most new computers)

      • PCI (32 or 64 bit. Graphics cards, network cards, and more)

      • AGP (Primarily used for graphics cards)

      • PCMCIA (Used in notebook computers)

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Installing peripheral devices1

Installing Peripheral Devices

An expansion card simply slides

into an expansion slot and is secured with a small screw. Before you open the case, make sure you unplug the computer and ground

yourself—that’s technical jargon

for releasing static electricity by

using a special grounding wristband

or by touching both hands to a metal object.

CLICK TO START

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Installing peripheral devices2

Installing Peripheral Devices

  • An expansion port passes data in and out of a computer or peripheral device

  • Peripheral device may include the Plug and Play feature, or require a device driver

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


Installing peripheral devices3

Installing Peripheral Devices

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


C hapter 2 c omplete

CHAPTER 2 COMPLETE

Computer Hardware


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