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AP US Government and Politics 2003 FRQs. By Mitch White [email protected] Marist Summer Institute July 14, 2010. 2003 AP US Gov FRQ #1. Presidential approval ratings fluctuate over the course of each presidential administration.

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Ap us government and politics 2003 frqs

AP US Government and Politics2003 FRQs

By Mitch White

[email protected]

Marist Summer Institute

July 14, 2010


2003 ap us gov frq 1
2003 AP US Gov FRQ #1

  • Presidential approval ratings fluctuate over the course of each presidential administration.

    • A. Identify two factors that decrease presidential approval ratings, and explain why each factor has that effect.

    • B. Identify two factors that decrease presidential approval ratings, and explain why each factor has that effect.

2003 AP US Government & Politics FRQs


Essential questions
Essential Questions

  • What factors increase and decrease presidential approval ratings?

  • How or why do these factors change presidential approval ratings?

2003 AP US Government & Politics FRQs


Vocabulary
Vocabulary

  • Presidential Approval Rating:

    • The percentage of Americans who approve of the way the President is handling his job as President

    • As measured by a poll, most notably the Gallup Poll

    • Presidential approval drives presidential influence, and his ability to get things done (especially getting legislation passed).

    • See Wilson, pp. 423-424

2003 AP US Government & Politics FRQs


Presidential approval ratings
Presidential Approval Ratings

2003 AP US Government & Politics FRQs


FACTORS THAT CAN DECREASE PRESIDENTIAL APPROVAL RATINGS

Presidential Scandals

  • Almost always lower presidential approval

  • Exs: Watergate, Iran-Contra, Monica Lewinsky

  • May be exceptions for especially good handling (e.g. “Checkers”)

  • Result of overly-ambitious campaign promises

  • Exs: Carter (change D.C.), Bush 41 (“no new taxes”)

Expectations Gap

  • Approval usually goes down overtime as “honeymoon” wears off

  • Exs: All Presidents from HST through BHO EXCEPT:

  • Ford (Special case), Reagan & Clinton (Unusually gifted politicians)

Decline in Popularity over term (time)

Bad Economic Conditions

  • President gets the blame (regardless of underlying causes)

  • Exs: Carter, Bush 41, Obama



FACTORS THAT CAN INCREASE PRESIDENTIAL APPROVAL RATINGS

Use of Media (“Spin”)

  • Effective use of media (radio, TV, newspapers, Internet) can

  • increase ratings above what they otherwise would be

  • Exs: Kennedy, Reagan

  • Note: Ineffective use of media does not in itself lower ratings

Good Economic Conditions

  • President gets the credit (regardless of underlying causes

  • Exs: Eisenhower 1st term, Reagan (post-1982), Clinton

  • Note: Ineffective use of media does not in itself lower ratings

Reelection (Campaign Effect)

  • Effect of running / making oneself attractive

  • Exs: Nixon in 1972, Reagan in 1984

  • Crises almost always raise popularity in the short term

  • Obvious exs: Release of Iranian hostages (RWR), 9/11 (GWB)

  • Less obvious exs: Bay of Pigs Invasion (JFK), Failed Iran hostage

  • rescue attempt (JEC)

  • But NOTE: Sustained international failures over a long period of

  • can devastate presidential popularity (Vietnam, LBJ)

Most Foreign Policy Problems / Crises



How or why
HOW or WHY

  • Each explanation must include either how by…) or why (because…) the factor causes change in approval ratings, e.g.:

    • By allowing Americans to see the President in a positive light, the effective use of media can increase presidential approval ratings. (HOW)

    • International problems usually increase presidential approval ratings (at least in the short term), because Americans want to feel unified behind their leader in times of foreign crises (WHY)

2003 AP US Government & Politics FRQs


2003 ap us gov frq 2
2003 AP US Gov FRQ #2

  • Citizens often chose to participate in the political process in ways other than voting

    • A. Identify two forms of participation in the political process other than voting

    • B. Explain two advantages of each form of participation you identified in (A).

2003 AP US Government & Politics FRQs


Essential questions1
Essential Questions

  • What are the ways (other than voting) that citizens can participate in the political process?

  • What are the advantages of each form of participation?

2003 AP US Government & Politics FRQs


Ways citizens participate in political process other than voting
Ways citizens participate in political process (other than voting)

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2003 AP US Government & Politics FRQs


Ways citizens participate in political process other than voting1
Ways citizens participate in political process (other than voting)

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2003 AP US Government & Politics FRQs


Ways citizens participate in political process other than voting2
Ways citizens participate in political process (other than voting)

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2003 AP US Government & Politics FRQs


Ways citizens participate in political process other than voting3
Ways citizens participate in political process (other than voting)

2003 AP US Government & Politics FRQs


Ways citizens participate in political process other than voting cont
Ways citizens participate in political process (other than voting) cont.

2003 AP US Government & Politics FRQs


Ways citizens participate in political process other than voting cont1
Ways citizens participate in political process (other than voting) cont.

2003 AP US Government & Politics FRQs


2003 ap us gov frq 3
2003 AP US voting) cont.Gov FRQ #3

  • Using the data in the graph above and your knowledge of United States politics, perform the following tasks:

    • Identify two trends shown in the graph.

    • Explain how each of the following contributes to the difference between the federal and the state and local lines in the graph.

      • Block grants

      • Federal mandates

2003 AP US Government & Politics FRQs


Essential question
Essential Question voting) cont.

  • Which level(s) of government are growing the fastest and what are the factors driving this growth?

2003 AP US Government & Politics FRQs


Frq 3 vocabulary
FRQ #3 Vocabulary voting) cont.

  • Block Grants (see Edwards, pp. 86-88)

    • Federal money given to states (or local communities) without a specific purpose or category. The grantee can spend the money using its own discretion within a broad area such as community development or social services.

    • Compare categorical grants, which represent federal money sent to state and local governments with specific requirements of how that money will be spent.

  • Federal Mandates

    • Federal laws or regulations that require states and/or localities to take some action which will cost money, but without all (or in some cases, any) of the necessary federal money attached.

    • Exs: ADA, NCLB

2003 AP US Government & Politics FRQs


Trends
Trends voting) cont.

  • Remember – in order to qualify as a trend, your answer must span more than

  • one data point!

2003 AP US Government & Politics FRQs


Acceptable trends
Acceptable Trends voting) cont.

2003 AP US Government & Politics FRQs


Block grants
Block Grants voting) cont.

States able to obtain increased resources from Federal government / definition of block grants

Increases in state and local hiring

Led to

2003 AP US Government & Politics FRQs


Federal mandates
Federal Mandates voting) cont.

Shift of responsibility to states / definition of federal mandates

Increases in state and local hiring

Led to

2003 AP US Government & Politics FRQs


2003 ap us gov frq 4
2003 AP US voting) cont.Gov FRQ #4

  • Both party leadership and committees in Congress play key roles in the legislative process

    • A. Define two of the following elements of the congressional committee system and explain how each influences the legislative process

      • Specialization

      • Reciprocity/logrolling

      • Party representation on committees

    • B. Identify two ways party leadership in Congress can influence the legislative process, and explain how each way influences the process.

2003 AP US Government & Politics FRQs


Essential question1
Essential Question voting) cont.

  • How does Congressional leadership and committees influence the legislative process?

2003 AP US Government & Politics FRQs


2003 frq 4 vocabulary
2003 FRQ #4 Vocabulary voting) cont.

  • Specialization

    • Members of Congress develop policy expertise

  • Reciprocity / logrolling

    • Vote trading / exchanges

    • Bargaining

  • Party representation on committees

    • Representation is reflective of the chamber as a whole

2003 AP US Government & Politics FRQs


Specialization voting) cont.

Reciprocity / logrolling

Party representation on committees

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2003 AP US Government & Politics FRQs


Specialization voting) cont.

Reciprocity / logrolling

Party representation on committees

  • Development of Expertise

  • Independence from Executive Branch

  • More attention paid to legislation

  • Division of labor

  • Better legislation (Explain HOW)

  • Party pushes its own agenda

  • Party determines leadership on committees

  • Speeds process

  • Government more expansive (can do more)

  • More porkbarrel spending (linked to reciprocity)

  • Note: Electoral success NOT accepted (doesn’t influence legislative process)

2003 AP US Government & Politics FRQs


Party leadership
Party Leadership voting) cont.

  • Assignment of members to committees

  • Assignment of committee chairs

  • Agenda-setting (rules committee)

  • Party discipline

  • Leadership use of media

  • Recognition on floor

  • Leadership control of electoral support

Note: Explain HOW above influences legislative process

2003 AP US Government & Politics FRQs


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