Plate tectonics review
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Plate Tectonics Review. Chapter 8. The ______________ is made of partially melted, “plastic” rock material and plates “float” on it. asthenosphere. At subduction boundaries one plate __________________ another plate. Subducts/plunges/ sinks below. A transform boundary is when ___________.

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Plate Tectonics Review

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Plate Tectonics Review

Chapter 8


  • The ______________ is made of partially melted, plastic rock material and plates float on it.


  • asthenosphere


  • At subductionboundaries one plate __________________ another plate


  • Subducts/plunges/ sinks below


  • A transform boundary is when ___________.


  • Two plates slide past each other at a fault


  • The East-African Rift/Red Sea are examples of a ___________________


  • Rift valley that formed at a continental-continental divergent boundary


  • Why does magma rise?


  • It is less dense than the surrounding material


  • Some ________________ rocks contain iron-based magnetic minerals that record the direction of Earths magnetic field when the rock formed.


  • igneous


  • Mid-ocean ridges are broken into sections that are offset from each other by breaks called __________________ that are perpendicular (at right angles) to the ridge and are the source of earthquakes here.


  • Fracture zones


  • In 1912, Alfred Wegener proposed the hypothesis of ______________________, which stated the continents have moved over time.


  • Continental drift


  • As you move out from the center of a mid-ocean ridge, what happens to the temperature of the rock?


  • Hottest rock is at the center, coolest rock is furthest out


  • An example of a (mid-) ocean ridge is _________________.


  • Mid-Atlantic Ridge

  • East Pacific Rise


  • Plate tectonics provides evidence/an explanation for the location/occurrence of:

    • 1.

    • 2.

    • 3.


  • 1. volcanoes

  • 2. earthquakes

  • 3. the formation of new crust (sea floor)


  • When Earths magnetic field matches up with the geographic poles is known as _______________ polarity

    • Ex. magnetic north & geographic north match up and magnetic south & geographic south match up


  • normal


  • A ________________ is the border between 2 diverging plates.


  • Rift valley


  • As you move out from the center of the mid-ocean ridge, what happens to the age of the rocks?


  • They go from younger to older


1

2

  • Label the layers

3

4


  • Convergent boundaries are when 2 plates ___________________


  • Move towards each other


  • Name the 3 ways that plates can move in relation to one another


  • Away from each other (divergent plate boundary)

  • Towards each other (convergent plate boundary)

  • Slide past each other (transform plate boundary)


  • An example of a deep-sea trench is the ____________ trench


  • Marianas

  • Peru-Chile

  • Tonga

  • Aleutian


  • When Earths magnetic field does not match up with the geographic poles is known as _______________ polarity

    • Ex. magnetic north & geographic south match up and magnetic south & geographic north match up


  • Reversed


  • The ___________ is made up of the crust & uppermost mantle and is broken into plates


  • lithosphere


  • What are 3 features/effects found at oceanic-oceanic convergent plate boundaries.

    • 1.

    • 2.

    • 3.


  • 1. trenches

  • 2. volcanic island arcs (on the overriding plate)

  • 3. earthquakes (shallow to very deep)


  • What is the Ring of Fire?


  • A ring of many active volcanoes around the Pacific plates boundaries


  • (Mid-) ocean ridges form at ___________ plate boundaries


  • Oceanic-oceanic divergent


  • Some of the observations that support the hypothesis of continental drift are:

    • 1.

    • 2.

    • 3.

    • 4.


  • 1. shape of continents (puzzle fit)

  • 2. fossils

  • 3. distinctive rock formations

  • 4. climate change evidence (ex. coal deposits)


  • At a continental-continental divergent boundary, a ________ forms.


  • Rift Valley forms


  • Magnetic properties & ages of igneous rocks on the ocean floor provide evidence for ___________


  • The theory of plate tectonics


  • Two other causes of plate movement aside from convection cells in the asthenosphere (mantle) are ______________________ & _______________________


  • ridge push (rising magma pushing the plates outward),& slab pull (cooling, sinking material pulls the plates down).


  • How do volcanoes at subduction boundaries erupt?

  • Why?


  • Violent, explosive eruptions

  • b/c silica-rich magma which is thick & gooey (hard for gases to escape)


  • The center of the mid-ocean ridge shows the ________________ orientation (direction) of Earths magnetic field


  • current


  • What kind of boundary is at the Pacific Plate and the Phillippine plate?


  • (oceanic-contienental) convergent/subduction boundary


  • A volcanic island chain formed due to subduction is _______.


  • The Mariana Islands

  • Aleutian Islands


  • As molten rock rises up between oceanic plates, the plates __________________


  • Spread apart


  • Most volcanoes and earthquakes mark the location of _________


  • Plate boundaries


  • A long chain of gently-erupting volcanic mountains on the ocean floor with a deep rift in the center is called a _____________________


  • (mid-) ocean ridge


  • What are the two major types of convergent boundaries?


  • Subduction and collision


  • How do volcanoes at mid-ocean ridges erupt?

  • Why?


  • Gentle, oozing eruptions

  • b/c magma is silica-poor, which makes it thin & runny (gases escape easily)


  • What are 3 features of oceanic-continental convergent plate boundaries?

    • 1.

    • 2.

    • 3.


  • 1. trenches (near the coast)

  • 2. volcanic mountains along the coast of the (overriding) continental plate

  • 3. earthquakes


  • __________________ commonly occur along transform plate boundaries.


  • Earthquakes


  • When two continental plates collide, what happens?


  • Mountains form & continents can fuse


  • _________________ is the theory that describes the formation, movements, and interactions of Earths lithospheric plates.


  • Plate tectonics


  • Why does one plate subductbelow another?


  • b/c the subducting plate is more dense


  • The San Andreas Fault is an example of a __________________ plate boundary.


  • transform


  • ________________ in the asthenosphere (mantle) cause hot magma to rise and cool magma to sink, allowing for plate movement.


  • Convection currents


  • The Himalaya Mountains formed at what type of boundary?


  • Continental-continental convergent (collision) boundary


  • Magnetic reversals are formed in a __________ image on opposite sides of the ridge


  • mirror


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