Chapter 3 Understanding Interest Rates. Four Types of Credit Instruments. 1.Simple (Interest) Loan 2.Fixed Payment Loan (Amortizing) Coupon Bond Face or Par Value ($1,000 increments) Maturity Coupon Rate (% of the Face Value) Discount Bond (Zero Coupon)
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Chapter 3
UnderstandingInterest Rates
1.Simple (Interest) Loan
2.Fixed Payment Loan (Amortizing)
Concept of Present Value
Simple loan of $1 at 10% interest
Year123n
$1.10$1.21$1.33 $1´(1 + i)n
$1
PV of $1 =———
(1 + i)n
Calculating Present Value is Referred to as Discounting
Yield to maturity = interest rate that equates today’s value with present value of all future payments
1.Simple Loan (i = 10%)
$100 = $110/(1 + i) Þ
$110 – $100$10
i = ————— =——= .10 = 10%
$100$100
2.Fixed Payment Loan (i = 12%)
$126$126$126$126
$1000 =——— + ——— + ——— + ... + ———
(1 + i) (1 + i)2(1 + i)3(1 + i)25
FPFPFPFP
LOAN =——— + ——— + ——— + ... + ———
(1 + i) (1 + i)2(1 + i)3(1 + i)25
3.Coupon Bond (Coupon rate = 10% = C/F)
$100 $100 $100$100$1000
PB =——— + ——— + ——— + ... + ——— + ————
(1 + i) (1 + i)2 (1 + i)3 (1 + i)10 (1 + i)10
CCCCF
PB =——— + ——— + ——— + ... + ——— + ————
(1 + i) (1 + i)2 (1 + i)3 (1 + i)N(1 + i)N
Perpetuity: Fixed coupon payments of $C forever (No Payback)
CC
Pc = —— i =——
iPc
4. Discount Bond (Pd = $900, Face = $1000)
$1000
$900 = ——— Þ
(1 + i)
$1000 – $900
i = —————— = .111 = 11.1%
$900
F – Pd
i =———
Pd
Three Interesting Facts in Table 1
1.When bond is at par, yield equals coupon rate
2.Price and yield are inversely related
3.Yield is greater than the coupon rate when the bond price is below par value
(F – Pd)360
idb =————´————————————
F(number of days to maturity)
One year bill, Pd = $900, F = $1000
$1000 – $900360
idb =———————´——= .099 = 9.9%
$1000365
Two Characteristics
1.Understates yield to maturity; longer the maturity, greater is understatement
2.Change in discount yield always signals change in same direction as yield to maturity
Rate of Return
C + Pt+1 – Pt
RET =——————= ic + g
Pt
C
where: ic = ——= current yield
Pt
Pt+1 – Pt
g =———= capital gain
Pt
Key Findings from Table 2
1.Only bond whose return = yield is one with maturity = holding period
2.For bonds with maturity > holding period, i PB ¯ implying capital loss
3.Longer is maturity, greater is price change associated with interest rate change
4.Longer is maturity, more return changes with change in interest rate
5.Bond with high initial interest rate can still have negative return if i
Conclusion from Table 2 Analysis
1.Prices and returns more volatile for long-term bonds because they have higher interest-rate risk
2.No interest-rate risk for any bond whose maturity equals holding period
Reinvestment Risk
1.Occurs if an investor holds a series of short term bonds over long term holding period
2.i at reinvestment is uncertain
3.gain from an i, lose when i¯
Key facts about duration
Everything else equal,
1.when the maturity of a bond lengthens, the duration rises as well.
2.when interest rates rise, the duration of a coupon bond falls.
3.the higher the coupon rate on the bond, the shorter the duration of the bond.
4.duration is additive: the duration of a portfolio of securities is the weighted-average of the durations of the individual securities, with the weights equaling the proportion of the portfolio invested in each.
%DP – DUR´Di/(1 + i)
i 10% to 11%:
Table 3—10% coupon bond
%DP= 6.76 ´ .01/(1 + .10)
= –.0615 = –6.15%.
Actual decline = 6.23%
20% coupon bond, DUR = 5.72 years
%DP= – 5.72 ´ .01/(1 + .10)
= –.0520 = –5.20%
The greater the duration of a security, the greater the percentage change in the market value of the security for a given change in interest rates. Therefore, the greater the duration of a security, the greater its interest-rate risk.
Real interest rate
Interest rate that is adjusted for expected changes in the price level
ir = i – pe
1.Real interest rate more accurately reflects true cost of borrowing
2.When real rate is low, greater incentives to borrow and less to lend
Real interest rates an Example
if i = 5% and pe = 0% then
ir = 5% – 0% = 5%
if i = 10% and pe = 20% then
ir = 10% – 20% = –10%