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CHEM115 General Chemistry I. Dr. Myton Class meets MTWR at 11:00 am. CHEM115 General Chemistry I. David M. Myton, Ph.D. (Dr. Myton) CRW327 [email protected] Pronto: dmyton Professor of Chemistry. Introductions. This class is not a direct competition

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Chem115 general chemistry i

CHEM115 General Chemistry I

Dr. Myton

Class meets MTWR at 11:00 am


Chem115 general chemistry i1
CHEM115 General Chemistry I

David M. Myton, Ph.D. (Dr. Myton)


Introductions
Introductions

  • This class is not a direct competition

  • Introduce your self to your neighbor

    • Name

    • Hometown

    • Major

  • Class survey

    • Biology

    • Chemistry

    • Criminalistics

    • Engineering

    • Fisheries & Wildlife

    • Geology

    • Other


Syllabus
SYLLABUS

  • Blackboard – get there through Anchor Access

    • Pronto – IM with voice

    • Documents, including slide summaries

    • writing exercises

  • http://edugen.wiley.com – homework, textbook, video office hours, student solutions

  • Supplemental Instruction (SI)

  • Bring to class: active chapter of text, calculator, i-clicker, lecture notes


I clicker
i-Clicker

Unique student serial numbers

Credit given for participation and accuracy

Bring to EVERY class

A

1

Yes

True

Strongly Agree

B

2

No

False

Agree

C

3

-

-

Neutral

D

4

-

-

Disagree

E

5

-

-

Strongly Disagree


Essential high school science content properties of matter
Essential High School Science Content: Properties of Matter

  • C1.1B Evaluate the uncertainties or validity of scientific conclusions using an understanding of sources of measurement error, the challenges of controlling variables, accuracy of data analysis, logic of argument, logic of experimental design, and/or the dependence on underlying assumptions.

  • C2.2B Describe the various states of matter in terms of the motion and arrangement of the molecules (atoms)making up the substance.

  • C4.2A Name simple binary compounds using their formulae.

  • C4.2B Given the name, write the formula of simple binary compounds.

  • C4.3A Recognize that substances that are solid at room temperature have stronger attractive forces than liquids at room temperature, which have stronger attractive forces than gases at room temperature.

  • C4.3B Recognize that solids have a more ordered, regular arrangement of their particles than liquids and that liquids are more ordered than gases.


Essential high school science content properties of matter1
Essential High School Science Content: Properties of Matter

  • C4.8A Identify the location, relative mass, and charge for electrons, protons, and neutrons.

  • C4.8B Describe the atom as mostly empty space with an extremely small, dense nucleus consisting of the protons

  • and neutrons and an electron cloud surrounding the nucleus.

  • C4.8C Recognize that protons repel each other and that a strong force needs to be present to keep the nucleus

  • intact.

  • C4.8D Give the number of electrons and protons present if the fluoride ion has a -1 charge.

  • C4.9A Identify elements with similar chemical and physical properties using the periodic table.

  • C4.10A List the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons for any given ion or isotope.

  • C4.10B Recognize that an element always contains the same number of protons.


Essential high school science content properties of matter2
Essential High School Science Content: Properties of Matter

  • C5.2A Balance simple chemical equations applying the conservation of matter.

  • C5.2B Distinguish between chemical and physical changes in terms of the properties of the reactants and products.

  • C5.2C Draw pictures to distinguish the relationships between atoms in physical and chemical changes.

  • C5.4A Compare the energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of aluminum and one gram of water

  • the same number of degrees.

  • C5.5A Predict if the bonding between two atoms of different elements will be primarily ionic or covalent.

  • C5.4B Predict the formula for binary compounds of main group elements.


Chemistry environmental sciences student organization
Chemistry & Environmental Sciences Student Organization

  • 1st Meeting: Wednesday September 2 at NOON in Crawford Hall Upstairs Lobby (w/ pizza)

  • 1st Function: Camping at Muskellunge Lake Leaving Soo Saturday Sept 5 at NOON, returning Monday Sept 7 mid-day. Campsites and dinner provided by club


Chapter 1 fundamental concepts and units of measurement
Chapter 1: Fundamental Concepts and Units of Measurement:

Learning Objectives

  • Upon completion of the chapter, the student should:

  • Know how chemistry fits into the sciences and everyday life.

  • Understand the difference between chemical reactions and physical changes.

  • Understand the Law of Conservation of Energy.

  • Be able to convert between ºF, ºC and K.

  • Know the difference between precision and accuracy.

  • Have a basic understanding of significant figures.

  • Know the basic SI units.

  • Be able to convert between calories and joules.

  • Be able to determine the density, mass, or volume of a substance when given two of these three variables.


Cumulative
Cumulative

  • accumulative: increasing by successive addition; "the benefits are cumulative"; "the eventual accumulative effect of these substances" wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn

  • Incorporating all data up to the present en.wiktionary.org/wiki/cumulative




"Scientific knowledge is a body of statements of varying degrees of certainty -- some most unsure, some nearly sure, but none absolutely certain ... Now, we scientists are used to this, and we take it for granted that it is perfectly consistent to be unsure, that it is possible to live and not know." Richard Feynman (1918-1988) Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965



A chemist s view
A Chemist’s View

01m11vd1.mov

Macroscopic

Symbolic

2 H2(g) + O2 (g)  2 H2O(g)‏

Particulate (Molecular)‏


Chemistry and the sciences
Chemistry and the Sciences

  • Chemistry- the study of the composition of matter and its transformations

  • Matter- anything that takes up space and has mass

  • Chemical reaction- change that results from the interaction of matter.

1.1. Chemistry is important for anyone studying the sciences


Scientific method getting started
Scientific Method : Getting Started

1.2. The scientific method helps us build models of nature


Scientific method testing the hypothesis
Scientific Method: Testing the Hypothesis

1.2. The scientific method helps us build models of nature



Question
Question: a thought without accepting it.

Which statement is a hypothesis?

a: Objects on Earth are attracted by gravity.

b: When pushed off the table, my chemistry book will fall to the floor.

c: Opposite charges repel each other.

d: Mass can be converted into energy.


Scientific method case study the process of growth
Scientific Method Case Study: a thought without accepting it. The Process of Growth

  • A child sees that a seed, when planted in soil, watered, and exposed to sunlight, grows to form a flower. He concludes that all living things require sunlight, water, and burial in soil to grow.

  • Build a case for rebuttal using the scientific method.

1.2. The scientific method helps us build models of nature


Your turn
Your Turn! a thought without accepting it.

Which of the following is not a hypothesis for the observed plant growth?

  • soil is necessary to all growth

  • light is essential to growth of the seed

  • water is required to allow growth

  • plants grow to a greater height if they receive fertilizer

  • none of the above

1.2. The scientific method helps us build models of nature


Your turn1
Your Turn! a thought without accepting it.

A chicken egg is buried, left in the sun, and watered. A second egg is left above the soil, watered and left in the sun. Would this prove that soil is necessary to growth?

  • Yes

  • No

1.2. The scientific method helps us build models of nature


The scientific method evaluating the data
The Scientific Method- Evaluating The Data a thought without accepting it.

A theory isanexplanation (based on well-tested, internally consistent experimental results) about why the phenomenon may occur

  • it should explain currently available data

  • It should be as simple as possible

  • It should clearly show underlying connections

  • It should accurately predict future behaviors

1.2. The scientific method helps us build models of nature


The scientific method is cyclical
The Scientific Method is Cyclical a thought without accepting it.

1.2. The scientific method helps us build models of nature


Question1
Question: a thought without accepting it.

Which describes a tested explanation of behavior of nature?

a: a scientific law

b: a theory

c: a hypothesis

d: empirical facts


Atomic theory helps us visualize matter
Atomic Theory Helps Us Visualize Matter a thought without accepting it.

  • Air inflates a balloon

    • air must be composed of matter

    • the matter is colliding with the walls of the container.

  • A leaf floats on water’s surface

    • water is composed of particles that occupy space

  • A leaf falls through air, but rests on water’s surface

    • particles are closer in liquid than in gases

1.2. The scientific method helps us build models of nature


Models helps us visualize matter
Models Helps Us Visualize Matter a thought without accepting it.

1.2. The scientific method helps us build models of nature


Changes in matter
Changes in Matter a thought without accepting it.

  • Chemical change- a process that results in the formation of a new substance

  • Evidence? Formation of a new solid, new liquid, new gas, temperature change, or an unexpected color change

  • Physical change- a process that results in no new substance, but that may change the state of those present, or the proportions

1.3. Matter is Composed of Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures


Question2
Question: a thought without accepting it.

What properties change when a substance undergoes a chemical reaction?

a: physical properties

b: chemical properties

c: both chemical and physical properties

d: neither chemical nor physical properties


Learning check chemical or physical change
Learning Check: Chemical Or Physical Change? a thought without accepting it.

1.3. Matter is Composed of Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures


Your turn2
Your Turn! a thought without accepting it.

Which of the following is not a chemical change?

  • a match burns in air

  • ice melts in air

  • an aluminum door whitens in air

  • all of these

  • none of these

1.3. Matter is Composed of Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures


(Molecule or

Formula unit)‏

(Atom)‏


  • Elements a thought without accepting it. are substances that cannot be decomposed by chemical means into simpler substances

  • chemical symbol

    • Most are one or two letters

    • First letter is always capitalized

    • All remaining letters are lowercase

    • Names and chemical symbols of the elements are listed on the inside front cover of the book


Elements

Name a thought without accepting it.

Symbol

Sodium

Copper

Cl

Nitrogen

K

Elements

  • Learn the name, spelling and symbol for elements #1-30, Au, Ag, Hg, Pb, Br, I


Atomic naming
Atomic naming a thought without accepting it.

1.3. Matter is Composed of Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures


What is a compound
What Is A Compound? a thought without accepting it.

  • Compounds - formed from two or more atoms of different elements combined in a fixed proportion

  • Have different characteristics than the elements that compose them

  • Can be broken down into elements by some chemical changes

1.3. Matter is Composed of Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures


A a thought without accepting it. MOLECULEis the smallest unit of a compound that retains the chemical characteristics of the compound.

MOLECULAR FORMULA

C8H10N4O2 - caffeine

H2O

01m06an1.mov


Mixtures
Mixtures a thought without accepting it.

  • mixtures consist of varying amounts of two or more elements or compounds

  • Homogeneous mixtures or “solutions”- have the same properties throughout the sample

    • Brass, tap water

  • Heterogeneous mixtures-consist of two or more phases

    • Salad dressing, Coca-Cola ™

1.3. Matter is Composed of Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures


Learning check classification
Learning Check: Classification a thought without accepting it.

1.3. Matter is Composed of Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures


Classification of matter by state
Classification Of Matter By State a thought without accepting it.

Classification by state is based on packing, motion, and shape

  • Solids have fixed shape and volume

  • Liquids have fixed volume, but take the container shape

  • Gases have to expand to fill the shape and volume of the container


Properties of matter
Properties Of Matter a thought without accepting it.

  • Chemical properties describe the behavior of the matter that leads to the formation of a new substance: the "reactivity" of the substance

  • Physical properties can be observed about the matter alone, without changing the composition

1.4. Properties of matter can be classified in different ways


Learning check chemical or physical property
Learning Check: Chemical or Physical Property? a thought without accepting it.

1.4. Properties of matter can be classified in different ways


Your turn3
Your Turn! a thought without accepting it.

Which of the following is a chemical property?

  • water is colorless

  • water reacts violently with solid Na metal

  • water dissolves table salt

  • all of these

  • none of these

1.4. Properties of matter can be classified in different ways


Question3
Question: a thought without accepting it.

Intensive properties are Independent of the quantity of material present

Which is an extensive physical property?

a: mass

b: melting point

c: reactivity with water

d: temperature


Measurements are observations
Measurements are Observations a thought without accepting it.

  • Qualitative observations are non-numerical-- ask “what” or “how” or “why”

  • Quantitative observations are numerical--ask “how much” and are also called measurements

  • This course is general chemistry with quantitative analysis

1.5 Measurements are essential to describe properties


Your turn4
Your turn! a thought without accepting it.

Which of the following is a quantitative observation?

  • the height of the plant

  • the mass of water added

  • the temperature of the day

  • all of the above

  • none of the above

1.5 Measurements are essential to describe properties


Measurement
Measurement a thought without accepting it.


Measurements
Measurements: a thought without accepting it.

  • Always involve a comparison

  • Require units

  • Involve numbers that are inexact (estimated). This uncertainty is due to the limitations of the observer and the instruments used

  • In science, all digits in a measurement up to and including the first estimated digit are recorded

1.5 Measurements are essential to describe properties


Which types of numbers are considered “exact?” Below are the general rules.

1. Conversions between units within the English System are exact.

e.g. 12 in = 1 ft or 12 in/1 ft (In this conversion, 12 and 1 are both exact.)

2. Conversions between units within the Metric System are exact.

e.g. 1 m = 100 cm or 1 m/100 cm (In this conversion, 1 and 100 are both exact.)

3. Conversions between English and Metric system are generally NOT exact. Exceptions will be pointed out to you.

e.g. 1 in = 2.54 cm exactly (1 and 2.54 are both exact.)

e.g. 454 g = 1 lb or 454 g/1 lb (454 has 3 sig. fig., but 1 is exact.)

4. “Per” means out of exactly one.

e.g. 45 miles per hour means 45 mi = 1 hr or 45 mi/1 hr. (45 has 2 sig. fig. but 1 is exactly one.)

5. “Percent” means out of exactly one hundred.

e.g. 25.9% means 25.9 out of exactly 100 or 25.9/100 (25.9 has 3 sig. fig., but 100 is exact.)

6. Counting numbers are exact. Sometimes it is hard to decide whether a number is a “counting number” or not. In most cases it would be obvious. Ask when in doubt.

e.g. There are 5 students in the room. (5 would be an exact number because you cannot have a fraction of a student in the room.)


Measurements and units
Measurements and units are the general rules.

  • In the U.S., we use the Imperial(USCS)System (United States Customary System units)

  • The scientific community (and most of the world) uses the metric system

  • Variations in the metric system exist, thus a standard system is used: International System of Units (SI)

  • SI units we will use now:

    • Length (m) Mass (kg) Time (s) Temperature (K)

1.5 Measurements are essential to describe properties


Mass matter content
Mass- Matter Content are the general rules.

USCS: oz (avdp.), lb, T

Metric: g

SI: kg

1.5 Measurements are essential to describe properties


Length
Length are the general rules.

USCS: in, ft, yd, mi

Metric: L, cm3

SI: m

1.5 Measurements are essential to describe properties


Volume bulk

measured directly, using equipment for volumetric measure are the general rules.

calculated using dimensional (length) information and appropriate formulas. 1 cm3= 1mL

USCS: fl. oz., pt., qt., gal

Metric: L, cm3

SI: m3

Volume-bulk

1.5 Measurements are essential to describe properties


Temperature
Temperature are the general rules.

  • USCS: °F

  • Metric: °C

  • SI: K

1.5 Measurements are essential to describe properties


Your turn5
Your Turn! are the general rules.

Which of the following is the lowest temperature?

  • 300. K

  • 16 ºC

  • 55 ºF

  • they are the same

1.5 Measurements are essential to describe properties


Question are the general rules.


Measurement error
Measurement Error are the general rules.

  • Because each measurement involves an estimate, measurements always have error.

  • Record all measured numbers, including the first estimated digit

  • These digits are called significant digits or significant figures

  • Exact numbers have infinite significant digits

1.6. Measurements always contain some uncertainty


Significant digits in a measurement are limited by instrument precision
Significant Digits In A Measurement Are Limited By Instrument Precision

  • Using the first thermometer, the temperature is 21.3 ºC (3 significant digits)

  • Using the more precise (second) thermometer, the temperature is 21.32 ºC (4 significant digits)

1.6. Measurements always contain some uncertainty


Measurement exercise
Measurement Exercise Instrument Precision

  • Complete the following table

  • Convert the area in mm2 to in2 and from in2 to mm2 and record.

  • Note that 2.54 cm = 1 in


Errors arise from a number of sources including
Errors Arise From A Number Of Sources Including: Instrument Precision

  • Errors-inherent error due to the equipment or procedure

    • Changing volume due to thermal expansion or contraction (temperature changes)

    • Improperly calibrated equipment

    • procedural design allows variable measurements

  • Mistakes-blunders that you know that you have made. Do not use these data

    • Spillage

    • Incomplete procedures

    • Reading scales incorrectly

    • Using the measuring device incorrectly

1.6. Measurements always contain some uncertainty


Reducing error
Reducing Error: Instrument Precision

  • Errors can often be detected by making repeated measurements

  • Error can be reduced by calibrating equipment

  • The average or meanreduces data variations: it helps find a central value

1.6. Measurements always contain some uncertainty


Accuracy vs precision
Accuracy vs. Precision Instrument Precision

  • An accurate measurement is close to the true or correct value, a “hole-in-one”

  • A precise measurement is close to the average of a series of repeated measurements

  • When calibrated instruments are used properly, the greater the number of significant figures, the greater is the degree of precision for a given measurement

1.6. Measurements always contain some uncertainty


Question Instrument Precision

Measurements with lots of scatter are probably considered: a: not accurate and not precise. b: not accurate, but precise. c: not precise, but accurate. d: precise and accurate.


Question4
Question Instrument Precision


Nonzero Instrument Precision digits in a measured number are always significant

Zeros must be considered more carefully:

  • Zeros between significant digits are significant

  • Zeros to the right of the decimal point are always counted as significant

  • Zeros to the left of the first nonzero digit are never counted as significant

  • Zeros at the end of a number without a decimal point are assumed not to be significant


How many significant figures

200.0 Instrument Precision

12100

21000

1010

200.001

0.98700

0.000012

2.200002

125

1.25e2

1.250e-3

125000

0.00125

6.2303e23

6 230 300 000 000

How many significant figures?


  • Measurements limit the precision of the results calculated from them

  • Rules for combining measurements depend on the type of operation performed:

    • Multiplication and division

      • The number of significant figures in the answer should not be greater than the number of significant figures in the least precise measurement.


  • Addition and Subtraction from them

    • The answer should have the same number of decimal places as the quantity with the fewest number of decimal places

3.247  3 decimal places

41.36  2 decimal places

+125.2  1 decimal place

169.8  answer rounded to 1 decimal place

Note: Remember that some numbers are exact. Numbers that come from definitions or direct counts have no uncertainty and can be assumed to contain an infinite number of significant figures.


Question5
Question from them


Question from them


Question from them

What is the proper way to report the sum 1.150 m + 3.3 m? a: 4.45 m b: 4.4 m c: 4.5 m d: 4.450 m


Dimensional analysis
Dimensional Analysis from them

  • We plan to bike the 14.1 miles from the university to Brimley State Park What is the distance in km given that 0.6215 mi = 1 km?

  • What is the distance in meters?


Dimensional analysis1
Dimensional Analysis from them

  • We plan to bike the 14.1 miles from the university to Brimley State Park If we travel at a rate of 17 miles per hour how many minutes will the trip take?


Dimensional analysis2
Dimensional Analysis from them

  • If we drive the 14.1 miles from the university to Brimley State Park and get 22.4 mpg in our car, what will the cost of the trip be if gas is $2.56/gal?


Uscs unit conversions
USCS Unit Conversions from them

1.7 Units can be converted using the factor-label method


Uscs and metric units are related using critical links
USCS And Metric Units Are Related Using “ from themCritical Links”

USCS to Metric Metric to USCS

Length 1 in. = 2.54 cm 1 m = 39.37 in

1 yd = 0.9144 m 1 km = 0.6215 mi

1 mi = 1.609 km

Mass 1 lb = 453.6 g1 kg = 2.205 lb

1 oz = 28.35 g

Volume 1 gal = 3.785 L 1 L = 1.0567 qt

1 qt = 946.4 mL

1 oz (fluid) = 29.6 mL

It is also useful to know that 1 mL = 1 cm3=1 cc

1.7 Units can be converted using the factor-label method


Building conversion factors in unit conversions
Building Conversion Factors in Unit Conversions from them

1. Write the number to be converted as a fraction (with units)

2. Identify the target units

3. Are the starting units in the same system as the target?

  • If not, you will need a critical link.

  • USCS→USCS Conversions: Write down the conversion factors from smallest to largest .

  • metric →metric conversions: Write down the definitions of all prefixed units.

1.7 Units can be converted using the factor-label method


Building conversion factors cont
Building Conversion factors (cont). from them

4. Use the form of the conversion factor that allows the units to cancel--they must be on opposite levels of the fraction to cancel.

5. Continue adding conversion factors until the units match the target units.

2nd Check- are all units written on the page two times? If so, you have enough info to start the problem.

1.7 Units can be converted using the factor-label method


Question from them

What conversion factors would be necessary to convert miles per gallon to km per liter? a: (1.6 km / 1 mi) and (1 gal / 3.79 L) b: (1 mi / 1.6 km) and (1 gal / 3.79 L) c: (1.6 km / 1 mi) and (3.79 L / 1 gal) d: (1 mi / 1.6 km) and (3.79 L / 1 gal)


Question from them

What is the volume of a box that measures 50 cm by 1.0 m by 2000 mm?a: 100,000 m3 b: 10,000 m3 c: 100 m3 d: 1.0 m3

e: 1 m3


If there are exactly 2.54 cm in one inch , what is the volume of a cube 1 foot on each side in units of cubic centimeters?


Chalcopyrite, the principle ore of copper (Cu) contains 34.63 percent Cu by mass. How many grams of Cu can be obtained from 5.11e3 kg of the ore?


If a bracelet is made of silver and copper with a mass of 38.9 g contains 32.3 g of silver, what is the percentage of silver and of copper. How many grams of copper are in a 50 gram bracelet?


Density(g/cm 38.9 g contains 32.3 g of silver, what is the percentage of silver and of copper. How many grams of copper are in a 50 gram bracelet?3)

Water 1.00

Aluminum 2.70

Iron 7.86

Gold 19.3

Air 0.0012

Density(d)is an intensive property defined as the ratio of an objects mass (m) to volume (v), d = m/v

  • characteristic of pure substances at a specified temperature

  • Since most substances expand when heated, densities decrease when heated.

  • units : g/L for gases and g/mL for solids and liquids.


Problem solving
Problem Solving 38.9 g contains 32.3 g of silver, what is the percentage of silver and of copper. How many grams of copper are in a 50 gram bracelet?

  • The density of ethanol, a colorless liquid that is commonly known as grain alcohol, is 0.798 g/mL. Calculate the mass of 17.4 mL of the liquid

  • Calculate the volume of 17.4 g of the liquid


A student pipets 25.0 0mL of isopropyl alcohol into an empty flask weighing 35.182 g. She finds the mass of the flask + alcohol is 54.707 g. Calculate the density of the alcohol.


The density of a solution of sulfuric acid is 1.285 g/cm flask weighing 35.182 g. She finds the mass of the flask + alcohol is 54.707 g. Calculate the density of the alcohol.3, and it is 38.08% acid by mass. What volume of the acid solution in mL do you need to supply 125 g of sulfuric acid?


A solution of sugar in water has a density of 1.05 g/cm flask weighing 35.182 g. She finds the mass of the flask + alcohol is 54.707 g. Calculate the density of the alcohol.3. If you have 250. mL of the solution and if the solution is 8.1% by weight sugar, how many grams of sugar are in the solution.


Question flask weighing 35.182 g. She finds the mass of the flask + alcohol is 54.707 g. Calculate the density of the alcohol.

Air at room temperature has a density of about 0.0012 g/cm3. What is the mass of 1.0 L of air? a: 1.2 g b: 12 g c: 0.0012 g d: none of these


Learning check
Learning Check: flask weighing 35.182 g. She finds the mass of the flask + alcohol is 54.707 g. Calculate the density of the alcohol.

A crash sounds from the lab- a large vial of mercury has fallen from a broken shelf. We call the hazardous materials team to report the spill, about 2.0 quarts of mercury. They ask for the mass- what is it? (hint: d=13.69g/mL & 1 L = 1.0567 qt)

1.8. Density is a useful intensive property


Amethyst is a colored form of the mineral quartz in which the purple color comes from traces of the element manganese. To determine the density of amethyst, you take a stone having a mass of 15.25 g and place it in a 100. mL graduated cylinder containing 45.0 mL of water. On adding the stone the water surface rises to the 50.8 mL mark. What is the density of amethyst?


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