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CHEM115 General Chemistry I. Dr. Myton Class meets MTWR at 11:00 am. CHEM115 General Chemistry I. David M. Myton, Ph.D. (Dr. Myton) CRW327 [email protected] Pronto: dmyton Professor of Chemistry. Introductions. This class is not a direct competition

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Chem115 general chemistry i

CHEM115 General Chemistry I

Dr. Myton

Class meets MTWR at 11:00 am


Chem115 general chemistry i1

CHEM115 General Chemistry I

David M. Myton, Ph.D. (Dr. Myton)

  • CRW327 [email protected]

  • Pronto: dmyton

  • Professor of Chemistry


Introductions

Introductions

  • This class is not a direct competition

  • Introduce your self to your neighbor

    • Name

    • Hometown

    • Major

  • Class survey

    • Biology

    • Chemistry

    • Criminalistics

    • Engineering

    • Fisheries & Wildlife

    • Geology

    • Other


Syllabus

SYLLABUS

  • Blackboard – get there through Anchor Access

    • Pronto – IM with voice

    • Documents, including slide summaries

    • writing exercises

  • http://edugen.wiley.com – homework, textbook, video office hours, student solutions

  • Supplemental Instruction (SI)

  • Bring to class: active chapter of text, calculator, i-clicker, lecture notes


I clicker

i-Clicker

Unique student serial numbers

Credit given for participation and accuracy

Bring to EVERY class

A

1

Yes

True

Strongly Agree

B

2

No

False

Agree

C

3

-

-

Neutral

D

4

-

-

Disagree

E

5

-

-

Strongly Disagree


Essential high school science content properties of matter

Essential High School Science Content: Properties of Matter

  • C1.1B Evaluate the uncertainties or validity of scientific conclusions using an understanding of sources of measurement error, the challenges of controlling variables, accuracy of data analysis, logic of argument, logic of experimental design, and/or the dependence on underlying assumptions.

  • C2.2B Describe the various states of matter in terms of the motion and arrangement of the molecules (atoms)making up the substance.

  • C4.2A Name simple binary compounds using their formulae.

  • C4.2B Given the name, write the formula of simple binary compounds.

  • C4.3A Recognize that substances that are solid at room temperature have stronger attractive forces than liquids at room temperature, which have stronger attractive forces than gases at room temperature.

  • C4.3B Recognize that solids have a more ordered, regular arrangement of their particles than liquids and that liquids are more ordered than gases.


Essential high school science content properties of matter1

Essential High School Science Content: Properties of Matter

  • C4.8A Identify the location, relative mass, and charge for electrons, protons, and neutrons.

  • C4.8B Describe the atom as mostly empty space with an extremely small, dense nucleus consisting of the protons

  • and neutrons and an electron cloud surrounding the nucleus.

  • C4.8C Recognize that protons repel each other and that a strong force needs to be present to keep the nucleus

  • intact.

  • C4.8D Give the number of electrons and protons present if the fluoride ion has a -1 charge.

  • C4.9A Identify elements with similar chemical and physical properties using the periodic table.

  • C4.10A List the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons for any given ion or isotope.

  • C4.10B Recognize that an element always contains the same number of protons.


Essential high school science content properties of matter2

Essential High School Science Content: Properties of Matter

  • C5.2A Balance simple chemical equations applying the conservation of matter.

  • C5.2B Distinguish between chemical and physical changes in terms of the properties of the reactants and products.

  • C5.2C Draw pictures to distinguish the relationships between atoms in physical and chemical changes.

  • C5.4A Compare the energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of aluminum and one gram of water

  • the same number of degrees.

  • C5.5A Predict if the bonding between two atoms of different elements will be primarily ionic or covalent.

  • C5.4B Predict the formula for binary compounds of main group elements.


Chemistry environmental sciences student organization

Chemistry & Environmental Sciences Student Organization

  • 1st Meeting: Wednesday September 2 at NOON in Crawford Hall Upstairs Lobby (w/ pizza)

  • 1st Function: Camping at Muskellunge Lake Leaving Soo Saturday Sept 5 at NOON, returning Monday Sept 7 mid-day. Campsites and dinner provided by club


Chapter 1 fundamental concepts and units of measurement

Chapter 1: Fundamental Concepts and Units of Measurement:

Learning Objectives

  • Upon completion of the chapter, the student should:

  • Know how chemistry fits into the sciences and everyday life.

  • Understand the difference between chemical reactions and physical changes.

  • Understand the Law of Conservation of Energy.

  • Be able to convert between ºF, ºC and K.

  • Know the difference between precision and accuracy.

  • Have a basic understanding of significant figures.

  • Know the basic SI units.

  • Be able to convert between calories and joules.

  • Be able to determine the density, mass, or volume of a substance when given two of these three variables.


Cumulative

Cumulative

  • accumulative: increasing by successive addition; "the benefits are cumulative"; "the eventual accumulative effect of these substances" wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn

  • Incorporating all data up to the present en.wiktionary.org/wiki/cumulative


Parfaits are delicious donkey

“Parfaits are delicious” - donkey


Juggling

Juggling?


Chem115 general chemistry i

"Scientific knowledge is a body of statements of varying degrees of certainty -- some most unsure, some nearly sure, but none absolutely certain ... Now, we scientists are used to this, and we take it for granted that it is perfectly consistent to be unsure, that it is possible to live and not know." Richard Feynman (1918-1988) Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965


Chapter 1 fundamental concepts and units of measurement1

Chapter 1:Fundamental Concepts and Units of Measurement

Brady & Senese 5th Ed


A chemist s view

A Chemist’s View

01m11vd1.mov

Macroscopic

Symbolic

2 H2(g) + O2 (g)  2 H2O(g)‏

Particulate (Molecular)‏


Chemistry and the sciences

Chemistry and the Sciences

  • Chemistry- the study of the composition of matter and its transformations

  • Matter- anything that takes up space and has mass

  • Chemical reaction- change that results from the interaction of matter.

1.1. Chemistry is important for anyone studying the sciences


Scientific method getting started

Scientific Method : Getting Started

1.2. The scientific method helps us build models of nature


Scientific method testing the hypothesis

Scientific Method: Testing the Hypothesis

1.2. The scientific method helps us build models of nature


Chem115 general chemistry i

  • It is the mark of an educated mind to be able to entertain a thought without accepting it.

    Aristotle (384 BC - 322 BC)‏


Question

Question:

Which statement is a hypothesis?

a: Objects on Earth are attracted by gravity.

b: When pushed off the table, my chemistry book will fall to the floor.

c: Opposite charges repel each other.

d: Mass can be converted into energy.


Scientific method case study the process of growth

Scientific Method Case Study: The Process of Growth

  • A child sees that a seed, when planted in soil, watered, and exposed to sunlight, grows to form a flower. He concludes that all living things require sunlight, water, and burial in soil to grow.

  • Build a case for rebuttal using the scientific method.

1.2. The scientific method helps us build models of nature


Your turn

Your Turn!

Which of the following is not a hypothesis for the observed plant growth?

  • soil is necessary to all growth

  • light is essential to growth of the seed

  • water is required to allow growth

  • plants grow to a greater height if they receive fertilizer

  • none of the above

1.2. The scientific method helps us build models of nature


Your turn1

Your Turn!

A chicken egg is buried, left in the sun, and watered. A second egg is left above the soil, watered and left in the sun. Would this prove that soil is necessary to growth?

  • Yes

  • No

1.2. The scientific method helps us build models of nature


The scientific method evaluating the data

The Scientific Method- Evaluating The Data

A theory isanexplanation (based on well-tested, internally consistent experimental results) about why the phenomenon may occur

  • it should explain currently available data

  • It should be as simple as possible

  • It should clearly show underlying connections

  • It should accurately predict future behaviors

1.2. The scientific method helps us build models of nature


The scientific method is cyclical

The Scientific Method is Cyclical

1.2. The scientific method helps us build models of nature


Question1

Question:

Which describes a tested explanation of behavior of nature?

a: a scientific law

b: a theory

c: a hypothesis

d: empirical facts


Atomic theory helps us visualize matter

Atomic Theory Helps Us Visualize Matter

  • Air inflates a balloon

    • air must be composed of matter

    • the matter is colliding with the walls of the container.

  • A leaf floats on water’s surface

    • water is composed of particles that occupy space

  • A leaf falls through air, but rests on water’s surface

    • particles are closer in liquid than in gases

1.2. The scientific method helps us build models of nature


Models helps us visualize matter

Models Helps Us Visualize Matter

1.2. The scientific method helps us build models of nature


Changes in matter

Changes in Matter

  • Chemical change- a process that results in the formation of a new substance

  • Evidence? Formation of a new solid, new liquid, new gas, temperature change, or an unexpected color change

  • Physical change- a process that results in no new substance, but that may change the state of those present, or the proportions

1.3. Matter is Composed of Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures


Question2

Question:

What properties change when a substance undergoes a chemical reaction?

a: physical properties

b: chemical properties

c: both chemical and physical properties

d: neither chemical nor physical properties


Learning check chemical or physical change

Learning Check: Chemical Or Physical Change?

1.3. Matter is Composed of Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures


Your turn2

Your Turn!

Which of the following is not a chemical change?

  • a match burns in air

  • ice melts in air

  • an aluminum door whitens in air

  • all of these

  • none of these

1.3. Matter is Composed of Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures


Chem115 general chemistry i

  • Matter can be classified (figure 1.10 p12):

(Molecule or

Formula unit)‏

(Atom)‏


Chem115 general chemistry i

  • Elementsare substances that cannot be decomposed by chemical means into simpler substances

  • chemical symbol

    • Most are one or two letters

    • First letter is always capitalized

    • All remaining letters are lowercase

    • Names and chemical symbols of the elements are listed on the inside front cover of the book


Elements

Name

Symbol

Sodium

Copper

Cl

Nitrogen

K

Elements

  • Learn the name, spelling and symbol for elements #1-30, Au, Ag, Hg, Pb, Br, I


Atomic naming

Atomic naming

1.3. Matter is Composed of Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures


What is a compound

What Is A Compound?

  • Compounds - formed from two or more atoms of different elements combined in a fixed proportion

  • Have different characteristics than the elements that compose them

  • Can be broken down into elements by some chemical changes

1.3. Matter is Composed of Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures


Chem115 general chemistry i

A MOLECULEis the smallest unit of a compound that retains the chemical characteristics of the compound.

MOLECULAR FORMULA

C8H10N4O2 - caffeine

H2O

01m06an1.mov


Mixtures

Mixtures

  • mixtures consist of varying amounts of two or more elements or compounds

  • Homogeneous mixtures or “solutions”- have the same properties throughout the sample

    • Brass, tap water

  • Heterogeneous mixtures-consist of two or more phases

    • Salad dressing, Coca-Cola ™

1.3. Matter is Composed of Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures


Learning check classification

Learning Check: Classification

1.3. Matter is Composed of Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures


Classification of matter by state

Classification Of Matter By State

Classification by state is based on packing, motion, and shape

  • Solids have fixed shape and volume

  • Liquids have fixed volume, but take the container shape

  • Gases have to expand to fill the shape and volume of the container


Properties of matter

Properties Of Matter

  • Chemical properties describe the behavior of the matter that leads to the formation of a new substance: the "reactivity" of the substance

  • Physical properties can be observed about the matter alone, without changing the composition

1.4. Properties of matter can be classified in different ways


Learning check chemical or physical property

Learning Check: Chemical or Physical Property?

1.4. Properties of matter can be classified in different ways


Your turn3

Your Turn!

Which of the following is a chemical property?

  • water is colorless

  • water reacts violently with solid Na metal

  • water dissolves table salt

  • all of these

  • none of these

1.4. Properties of matter can be classified in different ways


Question3

Question:

Intensive properties are Independent of the quantity of material present

Which is an extensive physical property?

a: mass

b: melting point

c: reactivity with water

d: temperature


Measurements are observations

Measurements are Observations

  • Qualitative observations are non-numerical-- ask “what” or “how” or “why”

  • Quantitative observations are numerical--ask “how much” and are also called measurements

  • This course is general chemistry with quantitative analysis

1.5 Measurements are essential to describe properties


Your turn4

Your turn!

Which of the following is a quantitative observation?

  • the height of the plant

  • the mass of water added

  • the temperature of the day

  • all of the above

  • none of the above

1.5 Measurements are essential to describe properties


Measurement

Measurement


Measurements

Measurements:

  • Always involve a comparison

  • Require units

  • Involve numbers that are inexact (estimated). This uncertainty is due to the limitations of the observer and the instruments used

  • In science, all digits in a measurement up to and including the first estimated digit are recorded

1.5 Measurements are essential to describe properties


Chem115 general chemistry i

Which types of numbers are considered “exact?” Below are the general rules.

1. Conversions between units within the English System are exact.

e.g. 12 in = 1 ft or 12 in/1 ft (In this conversion, 12 and 1 are both exact.)

2. Conversions between units within the Metric System are exact.

e.g. 1 m = 100 cm or 1 m/100 cm (In this conversion, 1 and 100 are both exact.)

3. Conversions between English and Metric system are generally NOT exact. Exceptions will be pointed out to you.

e.g. 1 in = 2.54 cm exactly(1 and 2.54 are both exact.)

e.g. 454 g = 1 lb or 454 g/1 lb(454 has 3 sig. fig., but 1 is exact.)

4. “Per” means out of exactly one.

e.g. 45 miles per hour means 45 mi = 1 hr or 45 mi/1 hr. (45 has 2 sig. fig. but 1 is exactly one.)

5. “Percent” means out of exactly one hundred.

e.g. 25.9% means 25.9 out of exactly 100 or 25.9/100 (25.9 has 3 sig. fig., but 100 is exact.)

6. Counting numbers are exact. Sometimes it is hard to decide whether a number is a “counting number” or not. In most cases it would be obvious. Ask when in doubt.

e.g.There are 5 students in the room. (5 would be an exact number because you cannot have a fraction of a student in the room.)


Measurements and units

Measurements and units

  • In the U.S., we use the Imperial(USCS)System (United States Customary System units)

  • The scientific community (and most of the world) uses the metric system

  • Variations in the metric system exist, thus a standard system is used: International System of Units (SI)

  • SI units we will use now:

    • Length (m) Mass (kg)Time (s) Temperature (K)

1.5 Measurements are essential to describe properties


Mass matter content

Mass- Matter Content

USCS: oz (avdp.), lb, T

Metric: g

SI: kg

1.5 Measurements are essential to describe properties


Length

Length

USCS: in, ft, yd, mi

Metric: L, cm3

SI: m

1.5 Measurements are essential to describe properties


Volume bulk

measured directly, using equipment for volumetric measure

calculated using dimensional (length) information and appropriate formulas. 1 cm3= 1mL

USCS: fl. oz., pt., qt., gal

Metric: L, cm3

SI: m3

Volume-bulk

1.5 Measurements are essential to describe properties


Temperature

Temperature

  • USCS: °F

  • Metric: °C

  • SI: K

1.5 Measurements are essential to describe properties


Your turn5

Your Turn!

Which of the following is the lowest temperature?

  • 300. K

  • 16 ºC

  • 55 ºF

  • they are the same

1.5 Measurements are essential to describe properties


Chem115 general chemistry i

Question


Measurement error

Measurement Error

  • Because each measurement involves an estimate, measurements always have error.

  • Record all measured numbers, including the first estimated digit

  • These digits are called significant digits or significant figures

  • Exact numbers have infinite significant digits

1.6. Measurements always contain some uncertainty


Significant digits in a measurement are limited by instrument precision

Significant Digits In A Measurement Are Limited By Instrument Precision

  • Using the first thermometer, the temperature is 21.3 ºC (3 significant digits)

  • Using the more precise (second) thermometer, the temperature is 21.32 ºC (4 significant digits)

1.6. Measurements always contain some uncertainty


Measurement exercise

Measurement Exercise

  • Complete the following table

  • Convert the area in mm2 to in2 and from in2 to mm2 and record.

  • Note that 2.54 cm = 1 in


Errors arise from a number of sources including

Errors Arise From A Number Of Sources Including:

  • Errors-inherent error due to the equipment or procedure

    • Changing volume due to thermal expansion or contraction (temperature changes)

    • Improperly calibrated equipment

    • procedural design allows variable measurements

  • Mistakes-blunders that you know that you have made. Do not use these data

    • Spillage

    • Incomplete procedures

    • Reading scales incorrectly

    • Using the measuring device incorrectly

1.6. Measurements always contain some uncertainty


Reducing error

Reducing Error:

  • Errors can often be detected by making repeated measurements

  • Error can be reduced by calibrating equipment

  • The average or meanreduces data variations: it helps find a central value

1.6. Measurements always contain some uncertainty


Accuracy vs precision

Accuracy vs. Precision

  • An accurate measurement is close to the true or correct value, a “hole-in-one”

  • A precise measurement is close to the average of a series of repeated measurements

  • When calibrated instruments are used properly, the greater the number of significant figures, the greater is the degree of precision for a given measurement

1.6. Measurements always contain some uncertainty


Chem115 general chemistry i

Question

Measurements with lots of scatter are probably considered: a: not accurate and not precise. b: not accurate, but precise. c: not precise, but accurate. d: precise and accurate.


Question4

Question


Chem115 general chemistry i

Nonzero digits in a measured number are always significant

Zeros must be considered more carefully:

  • Zeros between significant digits are significant

  • Zeros to the right of the decimal point are always counted as significant

  • Zeros to the left of the first nonzero digit are never counted as significant

  • Zeros at the end of a number without a decimal point are assumed not to be significant


How many significant figures

200.0

12100

21000

1010

200.001

0.98700

0.000012

2.200002

125

1.25e2

1.250e-3

125000

0.00125

6.2303e23

6 230 300 000 000

How many significant figures?


Chem115 general chemistry i

  • Measurements limit the precision of the results calculated from them

  • Rules for combining measurements depend on the type of operation performed:

    • Multiplication and division

      • The number of significant figures in the answer should not be greater than the number of significant figures in the least precise measurement.


Chem115 general chemistry i

  • Addition and Subtraction

    • The answer should have the same number of decimal places as the quantity with the fewest number of decimal places

3.247  3 decimal places

41.36  2 decimal places

+125.2  1 decimal place

169.8  answer rounded to 1 decimal place

Note: Remember that some numbers are exact. Numbers that come from definitions or direct counts have no uncertainty and can be assumed to contain an infinite number of significant figures.


Question5

Question


Chem115 general chemistry i

Question


Chem115 general chemistry i

Question

What is the proper way to report the sum 1.150 m + 3.3 m? a: 4.45 m b: 4.4 m c: 4.5 m d: 4.450 m


Dimensional analysis

Dimensional Analysis

  • We plan to bike the 14.1 miles from the university to Brimley State Park What is the distance in km given that 0.6215 mi = 1 km?

  • What is the distance in meters?


Dimensional analysis1

Dimensional Analysis

  • We plan to bike the 14.1 miles from the university to Brimley State Park If we travel at a rate of 17 miles per hour how many minutes will the trip take?


Dimensional analysis2

Dimensional Analysis

  • If we drive the 14.1 miles from the university to Brimley State Park and get 22.4 mpg in our car, what will the cost of the trip be if gas is $2.56/gal?


Uscs unit conversions

USCS Unit Conversions

1.7 Units can be converted using the factor-label method


Uscs and metric units are related using critical links

USCS And Metric Units Are Related Using “Critical Links”

USCS to MetricMetric to USCS

Length1 in. = 2.54 cm1 m = 39.37 in

1 yd = 0.9144 m1 km = 0.6215 mi

1 mi = 1.609 km

Mass1 lb = 453.6 g1 kg = 2.205 lb

1 oz = 28.35 g

Volume1 gal = 3.785 L1 L = 1.0567 qt

1 qt = 946.4 mL

1 oz (fluid) = 29.6 mL

It is also useful to know that 1 mL = 1 cm3=1 cc

1.7 Units can be converted using the factor-label method


Building conversion factors in unit conversions

Building Conversion Factors in Unit Conversions

1. Write the number to be converted as a fraction (with units)

2. Identify the target units

3. Are the starting units in the same system as the target?

  • If not, you will need a critical link.

  • USCS→USCS Conversions: Write down the conversion factors from smallest to largest .

  • metric →metric conversions: Write down the definitions of all prefixed units.

1.7 Units can be converted using the factor-label method


Building conversion factors cont

Building Conversion factors (cont).

4. Use the form of the conversion factor that allows the units to cancel--they must be on opposite levels of the fraction to cancel.

5. Continue adding conversion factors until the units match the target units.

2nd Check- are all units written on the page two times? If so, you have enough info to start the problem.

1.7 Units can be converted using the factor-label method


Chem115 general chemistry i

Question

What conversion factors would be necessary to convert miles per gallon to km per liter? a: (1.6 km / 1 mi) and (1 gal / 3.79 L) b: (1 mi / 1.6 km) and (1 gal / 3.79 L) c: (1.6 km / 1 mi) and (3.79 L / 1 gal) d: (1 mi / 1.6 km) and (3.79 L / 1 gal)


Chem115 general chemistry i

Question

What is the volume of a box that measures 50 cm by 1.0 m by 2000 mm?a: 100,000 m3 b: 10,000 m3 c: 100 m3 d: 1.0 m3

e: 1 m3


Chem115 general chemistry i

If there are exactly 2.54 cm in one inch , what is the volume of a cube 1 foot on each side in units of cubic centimeters?


Chem115 general chemistry i

Chalcopyrite, the principle ore of copper (Cu) contains 34.63 percent Cu by mass. How many grams of Cu can be obtained from 5.11e3 kg of the ore?


Chem115 general chemistry i

If a bracelet is made of silver and copper with a mass of 38.9 g contains 32.3 g of silver, what is the percentage of silver and of copper. How many grams of copper are in a 50 gram bracelet?


Chem115 general chemistry i

Density(g/cm3)

Water1.00

Aluminum2.70

Iron7.86

Gold19.3

Air0.0012

Density(d)is an intensive property defined as the ratio of an objects mass (m) to volume (v), d = m/v

  • characteristic of pure substances at a specified temperature

  • Since most substances expand when heated, densities decrease when heated.

  • units : g/L for gases and g/mL for solids and liquids.


Problem solving

Problem Solving

  • The density of ethanol, a colorless liquid that is commonly known as grain alcohol, is 0.798 g/mL. Calculate the mass of 17.4 mL of the liquid

  • Calculate the volume of 17.4 g of the liquid


Chem115 general chemistry i

A student pipets 25.0 0mL of isopropyl alcohol into an empty flask weighing 35.182 g. She finds the mass of the flask + alcohol is 54.707 g. Calculate the density of the alcohol.


Chem115 general chemistry i

The density of a solution of sulfuric acid is 1.285 g/cm3, and it is 38.08% acid by mass. What volume of the acid solution in mL do you need to supply 125 g of sulfuric acid?


Chem115 general chemistry i

A solution of sugar in water has a density of 1.05 g/cm3. If you have 250. mL of the solution and if the solution is 8.1% by weight sugar, how many grams of sugar are in the solution.


Chem115 general chemistry i

Question

Air at room temperature has a density of about 0.0012 g/cm3. What is the mass of 1.0 L of air? a: 1.2 g b: 12 g c: 0.0012 g d: none of these


Learning check

Learning Check:

A crash sounds from the lab- a large vial of mercury has fallen from a broken shelf. We call the hazardous materials team to report the spill, about 2.0 quarts of mercury. They ask for the mass- what is it? (hint: d=13.69g/mL & 1 L = 1.0567 qt)

1.8. Density is a useful intensive property


Chem115 general chemistry i

Amethyst is a colored form of the mineral quartz in which the purple color comes from traces of the element manganese. To determine the density of amethyst, you take a stone having a mass of 15.25 g and place it in a 100. mL graduated cylinder containing 45.0 mL of water. On adding the stone the water surface rises to the 50.8 mL mark. What is the density of amethyst?


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