Chapter 6 product specifications
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Chapter 6: Product Specifications. Product Design and Development Fifth Edition by Karl T. Ulrich and Steven D. Eppinger. Reflection on Stakeholder Need Statements from the Quiz. Access objects in the bag quickly and easily.

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Chapter 6: Product Specifications

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Chapter 6 product specifications

Chapter 6: Product Specifications

Product Design and Development

Fifth Edition

by Karl T. Ulrich and Steven D. Eppinger


Reflection on stakeholder need statements from the quiz

Reflection on Stakeholder Need Statements from the Quiz.

  • Access objects in the bag quickly and easily.

  • The person must be able to retrieve items of interest in an unawkward fashion.

  • A user should be able to access common items while standing up with minimal effort.

  • Be able to locate items easily in the bag.

  • Customer needs an easier way to pay for purchases.

  • More storage options for better organization.

  • New location for checkbook.

  • Person needs a way to see into the backpack easily so that they can find checkbook easier.

  • Customer needs bag with compartments they can reach while wearing the bag.

  • A wallet with a debit card and built in ID.

  • Hands free way of holding bag so both hands can be used in looking for stuff.

  • Velcro pockets on the outside to hold wallet, checkbook and such.


Here are suggested solutions the we wrote

Here are suggested solutions the we wrote.

  • See how the leather on the bottom of the bag is all scratched; it’s ugly.

  • When I’m standing in line at the cashier trying to find my checkbook while balancing my bag on my knee, I feel like a stork.

  • This bag is my life; if I lose it I’m in big trouble.

  • There’s nothing worse than a banana that’s been squished by the edge of a textbook.

  • I never use both straps on my knapsack; I just sling it over one shoulder.

  • The bag maintains its original appearance with use.

  • Bag allows easy access to items

  • Bag is easy to find.

  • Bag is difficult to steal.

  • Bag is hard to lose.

  • The bag protects fragile items from damage.

  • The bag can rest securely in multiple modes (either or both shoulders.)

  • The bag can be carried comfortably in multiple modes (one shoulder strap, two shoulder straps, or hand hold.)


Product development phases

Product Development Phases

Concept

Development

System-Level

Design

Detail

Design

Testing and

Refinement

Production

Ramp-Up

Planning

We are going into more detail on Concept Development. We did a lecture, quiz and you have homework assignment on stakeholder needs.

Now we are ready to go to the next step in Concept Development.


Chapter 6 product specifications

Concept Development Process

Development

Plan

Identify

Stakeholder

Needs

Establish

Target

Specifications

Generate

Product

Concepts

Select

Product

Concept(s)

Test

Product

Concept(s)

Set Final

Specifications

Plan

Downstream

Development

Perform Economic Analysis

Benchmark Competitive Products

Build and Test Models and Prototypes

Target Specs

Based on stakeholder needs and benchmarking

Final Specs

Based on selected concept, feasibility, models, testing, and trade-offs


Chapter 6 product specifications

The Blind Men and the Elephant

A Hindu fable by John Godfrey Saxe

from Elephants Ancient and Modern by FC Sillar and RM Meyler.

The Fourth reached out his eager hand,And felt about the knee.`What most this wondrous beast is likeIs mighty plain,' quoth he;`'Tis clear enough the ElephantIs very like a tree!'

It was six men of IndostanTo learning much inclined,Who went to see the Elephant(Though all of them were blind),That each by observationMight satisfy his mind.

The First approached the Elephant,And happening to fallAgainst his broad and sturdy side,At once began to bawl:`God bless me! but the ElephantIs very like a wall!'

The Second, feeling of the tusk,Cried, `Ho! what have we hereSo very round and smooth and sharp?To me 'tis mighty clearThis wonder of an ElephantIs very like a spear!'

The Third approached the animal,And happening to takeThe squirming trunk within his hands,Thus boldly up and spake:`I see,' quoth he, `the ElephantIs very like a snake.'

The Fifth who chanced to touch the ear,Said: `E'en the blindest manCan tell what this resembles most:Deny the fact who can,This marvel of an ElephantIs very like a fan!'

The Sixth no sooner had begunAbout the beast to grope,Than, seizing on the swinging tailThat fell within his scope,`I see,' quoth he, `the ElephantIs very like a rope!'

And so these men of IndostanDisputed loud and long,Each in his own opinionExceeding stiff and strong,Though each was partly in the right,And all were in the wrong!

So, oft in theologic wars,The disputants, I ween,Rail on in utter ignoranceOf what each other mean,And prate about an ElephantNot one of them has seen!


Product design specifications are difficult to write

Product Design Specifications are difficult to write.

  • Basic control and reference document for the design and manufacture

  • Specific, measurable, testable criteria

  • “Unambiguous, Understandable, Correct, Concise, Traceable, Traced, Design Independent, Verifiable, Unique, Complete, Consistent, Comparable, Modifiable, Attainable”

  • Functional decomposition

  • Performance targets

  • Constraints (Demands, Musts)

  • Goals (Wishes, Wants)

  • Features


Writing a good pds is very difficult

Writing a good PDS is very difficult

  • Customer

  • Regulatory Bodies

  • Laws of Physics

  • Functional Analysis

  • Company Constraints

  • Social, Political, and Legal Requirements


Chapter 6 product specifications

There are nine suggested steps for generatingtargetspecifications. These have been modified from your text.

  • Gather stakeholder needs.

  • Benchmark against stakeholder needs.

  • Translate stakeholder needs to metrics.

  • Identify appropriate standards.

  • Add any standards requirements to the metrics.

  • Generate a functional model.

  • Add any functional requirements to the metrics.

  • Benchmark against metrics.

  • Set ideal and acceptable values.


Chapter 6 product specifications

Product Specifications Example:Mountain Bike Suspension Fork


Chapter 6 product specifications

Start with the Stakeholder Needs. The table below was generated after interviews had been conducted and analyzed.


Chapter 6 product specifications

The next step is to benchmark on stakeholder needs.


Chapter 6 product specifications

Metrics Exercise: Coffee Cup

Stakeholder Needs:

The coffee cup holds a lot of coffee.

The coffee cup stays cool to the touch.

The coffee cup keeps coffee hot.

The coffee cup looks nice.

The coffee cup feels nice.

The coffee cup is low cost.

The coffee cup does not spill coffee.


Chapter 6 product specifications

Name:_________________________________CM:_________Name:_________________________________CM:_________Name:_________________________________CM:_________Using the available coffee cups, complete the benchmarking data. Use 1 * for worst and 5 ***** for best.


Chapter 6 product specifications

Establish Metrics and Units


Chapter 6 product specifications

Metrics Exercise: Coffee Cup

Stakeholder Needs:

The coffee cup holds a lot of coffee.

The coffee cup stays cool to the touch.

The coffee cup keeps coffee hot.

The coffee cup looks nice.

The coffee cup feels nice.

The coffee cup is low cost.

The coffee cup does not spill coffee.


Chapter 6 product specifications

Additional Areas to Consider

  • Physical requirements

  • Functional requirements

  • Service environment (comprehensive: insect and bird damage)

  • Kinematics – type of motion, direction, velocity, acceleration

  • Forces - direction, magnitude, frequency, resonance, stiffness

  • Materials – properties of final product, flow of materials, design for manufacturing


Design specification checklist

Design Specification Checklist

  • Performance At what speed must it operate? How often will it be used (continuous or discontinuous use)? How long must it last?

  • Environment (during manufacture, storage and use) All aspects of the product’s likely environment should be considered: for example temperature, humidity, risk of corrosion, vibration.

  • Target product cost This is strongly affected by the intended market.

  • Competition What is the nature and extent of existing or likely competition? Does our specification differ from the competition? If so, why?

  • Quantity and manufacture Should it be made in bulk, in batches, or as individual items made to order? Does it have to be a particular shape? Can we make all the parts or must we buy some in?

  • Materials Are special materials needed? Do we have experience of working with the likely candidate materials?

  • Quality and consistency What levels of quality and consistency does the market expect for this product? Does every product have to be tested?

  • Standards Does the product need to conform to any local, international or customer standards? Is the product safe?

  • Patents Are there any patents we may either infringe or register?

  • Packaging and shipping How will the product be packaged? How will the product be distributed?

  • Aesthetics and ergonomics Is the product easy and fun to use? Is it attractive to the right customer?

  • Market constraints Does a market already exist or must it be created? What is the likely product lifetime? How long do we have to get the product to market? What are the customers’ likes and dislikes?

  • Company constraints Does the product fit in with company image? Are we constrained in material or process choice? Are there any political considerations?

http://labspace.open.ac.uk/mod/resource/view.php?id=194654


Chapter 6 product specifications

More Things to Think About

  • Production – Factory limitations, outsourcing, tolerancing (You may wait on actual tolerances until later – just think about the big picture.)

  • Assembly

  • Transport

  • Costs

  • Schedule

  • Life-cycle issues

  • Human factors


Chapter 6 product specifications

Social, Political, Legal

  • Safety and environmental regulations

  • STANDARDS

    • www.ul.com

    • www.outdoorindustry.com

    • www.cpsc.gov

    • http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&tpl=%2Findex.tpl

    • www.astm.org

    • www.nfpa.org

    • http://www.nssn.org/

  • Safety and product liability

  • Patents and intellectual property


Chapter 6 product specifications

Here is a possible standard for a coffee cup.


Chapter 6 product specifications

ISO 20282-1:2006 is applicable to mechanical and/or electrical products with an interface that a user can operate directly or remotely to gain access to the functions provided. These products fall into at least one of the following categories: consumer products intended for some or all of the general public which are bought, rented or used, and which may be owned by individuals, public organizations, or private companies; consumer products intended to be acquired and used by an individual for personal rather than professional use (e.g. alarm clocks, electric kettles, telephones, electric drills); walk-up-and-use products that provide a service to the general public (such as ticket-vending machines, photocopying machines, fitness equipment); products used in a work environment, but not as part of professional activities (e.g. a coffee machine in an office); products including software that supports the main goals of use of the product (e.g. a CD player).

This part of ISO 20282 is not applicable to the following: purely physical products without an interactive user interface (such as a jug or a hammer); products where appearance or fashion is the main goal (such as a watch with no markings); products requiring specialist training, specific skills and/or professional knowledge (such as a musical instrument or a car); standalone software products; products intended to be used for professional activities only.


Chapter 6 product specifications

BS EN 12546-1:2000 Materials and articles in contact with foodstuffs. Insulated containers for domestic use. Specification for vacuum ware, insulated flasks and jugs

DIN EN 1186-3:2002 Materials and articles in contact with foodstuffs - Plastics - Part 3: Test methods for overall migration into aqueous simulants by total immersion


Chapter 6 product specifications

Link Metrics to Needs


Chapter 6 product specifications

There are nine suggested steps for generating targetspecifications. These have been modified from your text.

  • Gather customer needs. √

  • Benchmark against customer needs.√

  • Translate customer needs to metrics. √

  • Identify appropriate standards. √

  • Add any standards requirements to the metrics. √

  • Generate a functional model.

  • Add any functional requirements to the metrics.

  • Benchmark against metrics.

  • Set ideal and acceptable values.


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