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Wireless Networks. Instructor: Fatima Naseem Computer Engineering Department, University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila. Lecture # 09. Introduction To Wireless Networks And Its Types. Current Wireless Systems. Cellular system Wireless LANs Satellite Systems Paging Systems

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Wireless networks

Wireless Networks

Instructor: Fatima Naseem

Computer Engineering Department, University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila


Lecture 09

Lecture # 09

Introduction To Wireless Networks And Its Types


Current wireless systems

Current Wireless Systems

  • Cellular system

  • Wireless LANs

  • Satellite Systems

  • Paging Systems

  • PANs (Bluetooth)


1 cellular systems

1. Cellular Systems

  • Reuse Channels to maximize capacity

    • Geographic region divide into cells

    • Frequencies/timeslots/codes reused at spatially separated locations.

    • Base stations/Mobile telephone Switching Offices (MTSOs) coordinate handoff and control functions


2 wireless local area network wlans

2. Wireless Local Area Network (WLANs)

  • WLANs connect “local” computers(100m range=> confined regions)

  • Break data into packets

  • Channel access is shared (random access)

  • Backbone Internet provides best-effort service

  • Poor erformance in some applications e.g. video

  • Low mobility


Wireless lan standard

Wireless LAN Standard


3 satellite systems

3. Satellite Systems

  • Cover very large areas (global coverage)

    • Very useful in sparsely populated areas: e.g. rural, sea, mountains, etc.

  • Different orbit heights

    • GEOs (39000 Km) LEOs (2000 Km)

  • Optimized for one way transmission

    • Radio, TV broadcasting

  • Expensive base stations (satellites)


  • 3 satellite systems1

    3. Satellite Systems

    • Limited-Quality voice/data transmission

    • Traditional applications

      • Weather satellite

      • Radio/TV broadcasting

      • Military satellites

  • Telecommunication Applications

    • Global telephone connections

    • Backbone for global network

    • GPS

  • Iridium Globalstar, Teledesic, Inmarsat are some examples systems


  • 4 paging systems

    4. Paging Systems

    • Broad coverge for short messaging

    • Message broadcasting from all base stations

    • Simple terminals

      • Low complexity, very low-power pager (receiver) devices

  • Optimized for 1-way transmission

  • Answer-back hard

  • Overtaken by cellular


  • 5 personal area networks pans

    5. Personal Area Networks (PANs)

    • Bluetooth

      • Cable replacement RF technology (low cost)

      • Short range (10m, extendable to 100m)

      • 2.4 GHz band (crowded)

      • 1 data (700 Kpbs) and 3 voice channels

      • 1 Mbps data rate shared between 7 devices

      • TDD duplex scheme

      • Polling based multiple access

      • Widely supported by telecommunications, PC, and consumer electronics companies


    Emerging wireless system

    Emerging Wireless System

    • Ad hoc wireless networks

    • Sensor networks

    • Distributed control networks

    • Ultra Wideband (UWB) Systems


    1 ad hoc networks

    1. Ad-Hoc Networks

    • Peer-to-peer communications

    • No backbone infrastructure

    • Routing can be multihop

    • Topology is dynamic

    • Fully connected with different link SINRs


    1 ad hoc networks1

    1. Ad-Hoc Networks

    • Ad-hoc networks provide a flexible network infrastructure for many emerging applications.

    • The capacity of such networks generally unknown.

    • Transmission, access, and routing strategies for these networks are generally ad-hoc.

    • Crosslayer design critical and very challenging.

    • Energy constraints impose interesting design tradeoffs for communication and networking


    2 sensor networks

    2. Sensor Networks

    • Energy is the driving constraint

    • Nodes powered by non-rechargeable batteries

    • Data flows to centralized location

    • Low per-node rates but upto 100,000 nodes.

    • Data highly correlated in time and space.

    • Nodes can cooperate in transmission, reception, compression and signal processing.


    3 distributed control over wireless links

    3. Distributed Control over Wireless Links

    • Packet loss and/or delays impacts controller performance.

    • Controller design should be robust to network faults.

    • Joint application and communication network design.


    4 ultra wide band system

    4. Ultra Wide Band System

    • Ultra Wide Band (UWB) is an emerging wireless communications technology that can transmit data at around 100 Mbps (upto 1000 Mbps).

    • UWB transmits ultra-low power radio signals with very narrow pulses (nanosecond)

    • Because of its low power requirements, UWB is very difficult to detect (hence secure)


    4 ultra wide band system1

    4. Ultra Wide Band System

    • Why UWB?

    • Exceptional multi-path immunity

    • Low power consumption

    • Large bandwidth

    • Secure communications

    • Low interference

    • No need for a license to opreate

    • Next generation communication system


    Spectrum regulation

    Spectrum Regulation

    • Worldwide spectrum controlled by ITU-R

    • ITU auctions spectral blocks for set applications.

    • Some spectrum set aside for universal use.

    • Spectral allocation/regulation heavily impacts the evolution of wireless technology


    Standard bodies

    Standard Bodies

    • CCIR (Consultative Committee on International Radio)

      • Study groups for radio spectrum usage and interworking of wireless systems

    • Radio Communications Sector ITU-R (formerly CCIR and IFRB)

      • World conferences, radio regulations

    • Telecommunication Standardization Sector ITU T (formerly CCIT)

      • All worldwide wireline and wireless standards

      • IEEE standards often accepted


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