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PSYCH 2220 Sensation & Perception I Lecture 4 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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PSYCH 2220 Sensation & Perception I Lecture 4. Keywords for lecture 3.

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PSYCH 2220 Sensation & Perception I Lecture 4

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Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

PSYCH 2220

Sensation & Perception I

Lecture 4


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

Keywords for lecture 3

bipolar cells (excitatory and inhibitory types), retinal ganglion cells, on-centre off-surround, off-centre on-surround, concentric organization, spontaneous firing rate, excitation, inhibition, retinal ganglion cells as edge detectors, Mach bands, "scalloped illusion", simultaneous contrast, seeing (or not seeing) gradient (4 retinal ganglion cell demonstrations)

information passing down the optic nerve, optic chiasm, magnification factor, partial decussation, thalamus, cortex, brainstem, olfactory 'swelling', visual 'swelling', hearing and balance 'swelling', lateral geniculate nucleus of thalamus (perception), pupil control nucleus, superior colliculus (fast eye movements), vestibular nucleus (slow eye movements and orientation)


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

Keywords for lecture 3 (cont’d)

sustained and transient cells, cortex (cortices), cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, sulcus (sulci), gyrus (gyri), functional localization over the cortex, primary sensory projection areas, association cortex, frontal, parietal, inferotemporal, visual cortex, area 17, Brodmann, retinotopic map,


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

Lateral geniculate nucleus of the THALAMUS


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

Organization of the lateral geniculate

of the THALAMUS (1)

Parvocellular

layers (3- 6)

Magnocellular

layers (1- 2)


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

6

5

4

3

2

1

6

5

4

3

2

1

Injection of

tracer to left eye


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

CORTEX


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

Magnification factor

when looking at the centre, each letter uses

the same amount of cortex


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

David Hubel

Torsten Wiesel

Plotting the receptive field

of a simple cell…..


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

  • Hubel & Wiesel described three types of cells in the cortex:

  • simple

  • complex

  • hypercomplex

  • from their responses all vision is built up.

  • They received a NOBEL PRIZE for this work.


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

SIMPLE CELLS

are orientation tuned...


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

Visual cortical cells are orientation tuned

Response

preferred

orientation

Orientation


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

Complex cells


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

video about cortical cells


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

Tuning for orientation of bars

Tuning for width of bars


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

Activity profile while viewing the test stimulus


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

Activity profile while viewing the adapting stimulus…

the amount of adaptation depends on the activity

during this period..


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

Response before adaptation for each channel...

.. Is reduced depending on each channel’s adaptation.

The peak of the extrapolated curve…

.. Is thus shifted.

Hypothetical

channels

Amount of

adaptation


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

Structure and organization of the cortex


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

Pinwheels in the cortex


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

Visualizing orientation columns in the cortex

(Using radioactive deoxyglucose)


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

Ocular dominance bands over the cortex


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

What happens beyond the hypercomplex cells?

Grandmother cells

heirarchy

prosopagnosia

face cells; hand cells

anatomy


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

transient cells

magnocellular layers of LGN

parvocellular layers of LGN

sustained cells


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

Stimuli used to investigate processing of

cells in the inferotemporal region. The image of the monkey’s hand elicited the largest response….

...from a cell in the Inferotemporal cortex


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

A face cell….

...from the Inferotemporal cortex


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

damage to the face cell area in the inferotemporal cortex…

… causes PROSOPAGNOSIA.

A specific inability to recognize faces.


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

As promised .. The following is a question that will appear on the midterm next week… (no, I did not promise to ANSWER it too….!

GOOD LUCK!


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

REVISION


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

Keywords for lecture 1

electromagnetic spectrum, (pit viper), mechanical energy,

chemical energy, stages of vision, (i) eye movements,

(ii) focus, (iii) light regulation, pupil, pin-hole camera,

refraction, focus, cornea, lens, accommodation,

myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, presbyopia,

diving animals, (i) mask,

take out cornea on land and use powerful lens

(ii) flat cornea, (iii) pin-hole,

(iii) brute force solution: lens can go from ‘air-dwelling type’ through to ‘water dwelling type’

(iv) four-eyed fish, (mermaids)


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

Keywords for lecture 2

depth of focus, ophthalmoscope, retina, retinal blood vessels, fovea, optic disk, blind spot, retina,

cells, cell membrane, ions, potassium, sodium, channels

(meaning 1), neurones, resting potential (-70mV), action potential, synapse, neurotransmitter, Schwann cells, axon, dendrites, polarization, depolarization,

hyperpolarization,

dark/light adaptation, rods, thresholds, sensitivity, cones, visual purple, Purkinje shift, scotopic, photopic, fovea, receptive fields, bipolar cells, (excitatory and inhibitory types), retinal ganglion cells, on-centre off-surround, off-centre on-surround, concentric organization


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

Keywords for lecture 3

retinal ganglion cells, on-centre off-surround, off-centre on-surround, concentric organization, spontaneous firing rate, excitation, inhibition, retinal ganglion cells as edge detectors, Mach bands, "scalloped illusion", simultaneous contrast, seeing (or not seeing) gradient (4 retinal ganglion cell demonstrations)

information passing down the optic nerve, optic chiasm, magnification factor, partial decussation, thalamus, cortex, brainstem, olfactory 'swelling', visual 'swelling', hearing and balance 'swelling', lateral geniculate nucleus of thalamus (perception), Edinger-Westphal nucleus (pupil), superior colliculus (fast eye movements), vestibular nucleus (slow eye movements)


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

Keywords for lecture 3 (cont’d)

lateral geniculate nucleus of thalamus, magnocellular and parvocellular layers, sustained and transient cells, cortex (cortices), cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, sulcus (sulci), gyrus (gyri), functional localization over the cortex, phrenology, primary sensory projection areas, association cortex, frontal, parietal, inferotemporal, visual cortex, area 17, Brodmann, retinotopic map, Hubel and Wiesel, simple cells,


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

Keywords for lecture 4

simple cell receptive fields, relation to retinal ganglion cells, tuned for (i) orientation, (ii) width-of-bars,

(iii) movement, (iv) direction, binocular

complex cells, hypercomplex cells,

grandmother cell hypothesis, orientation columns, hypercolumns, pinwheels, ocular dominance bands, radioactive deoxyglucose, autoradiographs, inferotemporal cortex (ventral stream), prosopagnosia, parietal cortex (dorsal stream), tilt after effect, channels (meaning 2), adaptation (psychophysical technique)


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

Left over keywords….

grandmother cell hypothesis, orientation columns, hypercolumns, pinwheels, ocular dominance bands, radioactive deoxyglucose, autoradiographs, inferotemporal cortex (ventral stream), prosopagnosia, parietal cortex (dorsal stream), tilt after effect, channels (meaning 2), adaptation

(psychophysical technique)


Psych 2220 sensation perception i lecture 4

There will be 37 multiple choices: 1 point each

Total = 37 points = 100%

Counts for 30% or 40% if it is your best.

A question from next week’s exam

14 A synapse is

a)another name for a nerve cell or neurone

b)the membrane on which the photopigment is stored in rods and cones

c) the gap between nerve cells across which they can communicate

d)a cell that wraps itself around the axon of a neurone

e)none of the above


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