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History of Terminal Automation. Preview. Automation is the description for computer processors used to identify aircraft, predict flight paths and altitude, and notify air traffic controllers of developing dangerous situations. Terminal Automation is the term

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History of Terminal Automation

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History of terminal automation

History

of

Terminal

Automation


History of terminal automation

Preview

Automation is the description for computer

processors used to identify aircraft, predict

flight paths and altitude, and notify air traffic

controllers of developing dangerous

situations. Terminal Automation is the term

used to describe the processors used in the

controlling of airspace surrounding airports

where flights originate or terminate.

Page 2-1


History of terminal automation

Overview and Job Relevance

In this lesson you will cover the history and evolution of Automation in controlling Air Traffic, specifically in the terminal area. This history will give you an understanding of why there is a need for Terminal Automation and how it has made control of air traffic safer and more efficient.

Page 2-1


History of terminal automation

Objective

Using all classroom notes, handouts, and documentation, the student will identify significant historical events and developments in the evolution of Automation in accordance with this student guide.

Page 2-1


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

  • Impact of Automation

    • A Brief History Lesson

  • The Need for Air Traffic Control

    • Wright Brothers in 1903

    • VFR

    • Terminal Congestion

Page 2-1


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

  • The First Controller

    • Archie William League

    • Flags (Green & Red)

    • Mixed Communication

    • Multiple Pilots in view

Figure 2-1

Page 2-2


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

  • Light Guns

    • Still Used

    • No Radios

    • Weather Drawbacks

P/O Table 2-1

Page 2-2


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

  • Light Guns (Continued)

Table 2-1

Page 2-2


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

  • Two-Way Radios

    • More Effective

    • Still Expensive

    • Direct Contact with Pilots

    • Airborne Navigation Devices

Page 2-3


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

  • Maps and “Shrimp Boats”

    • En Route and Terrain Maps

    • Brass Markers

    • Flight Strips Attached

    • More Controllers Needed

Figure 2-2

Page 2-4


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

  • From Maps to Radars

    • Radio Detection And Ranging

    • Developed for Air Defense

    • The Radar “blip”

    • Plastic “Shrimp Boats” used

Figure 2-3

Page 2-5


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

Controllers Using “Shrimp Boats”

Figure 2-4

Page 2-6


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

  • IFF

    • Identification Friend or Foe

    • Interrogator

    • Transponder

    • Challenge Pulse

    • Reply

    • “Friendly” Radar “Blip”

Page 2-6


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

  • ATCRBS

    • Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System

    • Principles of IFF

    • Six Modes of Interrogation

    • Octal Based System (4096 codes)

    • Beacon Decoder

Table 2-2

Page 2-7


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

  • IDENT

    • Special Identification Pulse

    • Double-Width Beacon Slash

  • Emergency

    • Aural Alarm Box

    • 77XX Codes

    • “Double Bloomer”

  • ATCRBS Drawbacks

    • Controller maintains Positive Identification and Separation

Page 2-8


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

Secondary Radar System

Figure 2-5

Page 2-9


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

  • TPX-42

    • Direct Altitude and Identity Readout

    • Numeric Representation

    • Beacon Decoder/Filter

  • Additional Features

    • Shrinking Circles

    • Trail Dots

  • Altitude Encoding

    • Mode C

    • Hundreds of Feet

Page 2-10


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

  • Modifications and Upgrades

    • Semi-computer

    • Expensive

    • 980B (Low Altitude Alerting System)

    • Programmable Indicator Data Processor

Page 2-11


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

  • ARTS I

    • Advanced Radar Traffic Control System

    • Atlanta 1964

    • Univac 1218

    • Beacon Tracking Level

  • The Software

    • Alpha-Numeric “Tagged”

    • Data Blocks

    • Controller Position Symbol

  • Display

    • Identity and Altitude

    • Manual Altitude Inserting

Page 2-12


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

  • Flight Plans

    • Scheduling

    • Flight Data Input/Output

    • Arrival/Departure List

  • ARTS IA

    • New York TRACON

    • Additional Memory and Peripherals

Page 2-12


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

ARTS I at Atlanta

Figure 2-7

Page 2-13


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

  • ARTS III

    • 60 Medium to Large Sites

    • 1969 Contract for BTL

    • 1973 All Operational

  • Design

    • Based on ARTS I & IA

    • Hardware and Software Modularity

    • Sites individually tailored

    • Easily Modified and Upgraded

Page 2-14


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

  • ARTS IIIA

    • 1976 Enhancement

    • 29 Sites

    • Radar and Beacon Tracking Level

  • Features

    • Conflict Alerting

    • Minimum Safe Altitude Warning

Page 2-14


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

  • New York TRACON ARTS IIIA

    • Highest traffic volume

    • Maxed out ARTS IIIA resources

    • Hardware Replaced with VME

  • Current Use

    • Still Operating (STARS?)

Page 2-15


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

  • ARTS II

    • III too expensive

    • TPX-42 interim

    • 1974 contract for Burroughs/Unisys

    • All installed by 1978

  • Features

    • BTL System

    • Simple Design, low maintenance

    • Routine Programming

  • ARTS IIA

    • Faster Processor more Memory

    • 256 Tracks with CA and MSAW

Page 2-16


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

ATC on FDAD

Figure 2-9

Page 2-17


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

  • En Route ARTS

    • Special Terminal Environments

  • Purpose

    • Center Design

    • Plan View Displays

  • Operation

    • Up to Five different Radars

    • Radar Mosaic

Page 2-18


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

  • Differences

    • Mosaic

    • Plan View Displays

  • Micro-En Route ARTS

    • Replaced IOPs

    • COTS Hardware

    • Combined En Route and Terminal

Page 2-18


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

Controller using PVD with EARTS

Figure 2-10

Page 2-19


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

  • ARTS IIIE

    • Evolution of ARTS IIIA

    • COTS and Ethernet LANs

  • New York TRACON

    • First IIIE Site

    • Incrementally Developed

    • 1986-1989 Time Frame

Page 2-20


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

  • Design

    • Functionally Distributed

    • 3400 Tracks and 6 Sensors

    • Fail Safe/Fail Soft

  • Testing

    • No downtime to Operation

    • System Performance very Strong

    • Installed at Large TRACONS

Page 2-20


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

Controller using an ACD with ARTS IIIE

Page 2-21


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

  • Common ARTS

    • Latest ARTS generation

    • Integrates ARTS IIA and IIIE

    • Software Baseline

  • Design

    • Uses COTS Hardware

    • Existing Displays & External Interfaces

    • Open Technology

Page 2-22


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

  • Computer Software

    • American National Standards Institute C Code

    • User Datagram Protocol/Internet Protocol

    • Inter-Computer CSCI Communications

  • ARTS IIE Configuration

    • TP, CP, and SMC into the SP

    • Display Network Interface Processor

    • Dual Sensor and Large Single Sensor

    • Two System Processors

Page 2-22


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

Air Traffic Control Tower Simulation

Page 2-23


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

  • STARS

    • Standard Terminal Automation Replacement

    • System

    • FAA and DOD joint venture

    • 172 FAA Sites and 199 DOD Sites

  • Purpose

    • Provides Air Traffic Control Services

  • Display

    • 20 x 20 Color Display

    • Windows and Graphics

Page 2-24


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

  • Workstations

    • Standard Processors

    • COTS Procurable and Upgradeable

  • Transition

    • ARTS Backrooms

    • Full transition after Controller Comfort

    • Along with technician training

Page 2-24


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

STARS at El Paso, Texas

Page 2-25


History of terminal automation

Lecture 2

Review Questions

  • The alarm generated for predicted aircraft collisions is ____________ __________.

  • What system series is commonly found at high activity airports ___________.

  • ARTS is currently an acronym for the ______________ ___________ _____________ ____________.

  • STARS is an acronym for the ____________________ _______________ ____________________ ______________.

Conflict Alert

ARTS IIIA

Automated

Radar Terminal System

Standard

Terminal Automation Replacement System

Page 2-26


History of terminal automation

Take A Break


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