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History of Terminal Automation. Preview. Automation is the description for computer processors used to identify aircraft, predict flight paths and altitude, and notify air traffic controllers of developing dangerous situations. Terminal Automation is the term

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History of Terminal Automation

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History

of

Terminal

Automation


Preview

Automation is the description for computer

processors used to identify aircraft, predict

flight paths and altitude, and notify air traffic

controllers of developing dangerous

situations. Terminal Automation is the term

used to describe the processors used in the

controlling of airspace surrounding airports

where flights originate or terminate.

Page 2-1


Overview and Job Relevance

In this lesson you will cover the history and evolution of Automation in controlling Air Traffic, specifically in the terminal area. This history will give you an understanding of why there is a need for Terminal Automation and how it has made control of air traffic safer and more efficient.

Page 2-1


Objective

Using all classroom notes, handouts, and documentation, the student will identify significant historical events and developments in the evolution of Automation in accordance with this student guide.

Page 2-1


Lecture 2

  • Impact of Automation

    • A Brief History Lesson

  • The Need for Air Traffic Control

    • Wright Brothers in 1903

    • VFR

    • Terminal Congestion

Page 2-1


Lecture 2

  • The First Controller

    • Archie William League

    • Flags (Green & Red)

    • Mixed Communication

    • Multiple Pilots in view

Figure 2-1

Page 2-2


Lecture 2

  • Light Guns

    • Still Used

    • No Radios

    • Weather Drawbacks

P/O Table 2-1

Page 2-2


Lecture 2

  • Light Guns (Continued)

Table 2-1

Page 2-2


Lecture 2

  • Two-Way Radios

    • More Effective

    • Still Expensive

    • Direct Contact with Pilots

    • Airborne Navigation Devices

Page 2-3


Lecture 2

  • Maps and “Shrimp Boats”

    • En Route and Terrain Maps

    • Brass Markers

    • Flight Strips Attached

    • More Controllers Needed

Figure 2-2

Page 2-4


Lecture 2

  • From Maps to Radars

    • Radio Detection And Ranging

    • Developed for Air Defense

    • The Radar “blip”

    • Plastic “Shrimp Boats” used

Figure 2-3

Page 2-5


Lecture 2

Controllers Using “Shrimp Boats”

Figure 2-4

Page 2-6


Lecture 2

  • IFF

    • Identification Friend or Foe

    • Interrogator

    • Transponder

    • Challenge Pulse

    • Reply

    • “Friendly” Radar “Blip”

Page 2-6


Lecture 2

  • ATCRBS

    • Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System

    • Principles of IFF

    • Six Modes of Interrogation

    • Octal Based System (4096 codes)

    • Beacon Decoder

Table 2-2

Page 2-7


Lecture 2

  • IDENT

    • Special Identification Pulse

    • Double-Width Beacon Slash

  • Emergency

    • Aural Alarm Box

    • 77XX Codes

    • “Double Bloomer”

  • ATCRBS Drawbacks

    • Controller maintains Positive Identification and Separation

Page 2-8


Lecture 2

Secondary Radar System

Figure 2-5

Page 2-9


Lecture 2

  • TPX-42

    • Direct Altitude and Identity Readout

    • Numeric Representation

    • Beacon Decoder/Filter

  • Additional Features

    • Shrinking Circles

    • Trail Dots

  • Altitude Encoding

    • Mode C

    • Hundreds of Feet

Page 2-10


Lecture 2

  • Modifications and Upgrades

    • Semi-computer

    • Expensive

    • 980B (Low Altitude Alerting System)

    • Programmable Indicator Data Processor

Page 2-11


Lecture 2

  • ARTS I

    • Advanced Radar Traffic Control System

    • Atlanta 1964

    • Univac 1218

    • Beacon Tracking Level

  • The Software

    • Alpha-Numeric “Tagged”

    • Data Blocks

    • Controller Position Symbol

  • Display

    • Identity and Altitude

    • Manual Altitude Inserting

Page 2-12


Lecture 2

  • Flight Plans

    • Scheduling

    • Flight Data Input/Output

    • Arrival/Departure List

  • ARTS IA

    • New York TRACON

    • Additional Memory and Peripherals

Page 2-12


Lecture 2

ARTS I at Atlanta

Figure 2-7

Page 2-13


Lecture 2

  • ARTS III

    • 60 Medium to Large Sites

    • 1969 Contract for BTL

    • 1973 All Operational

  • Design

    • Based on ARTS I & IA

    • Hardware and Software Modularity

    • Sites individually tailored

    • Easily Modified and Upgraded

Page 2-14


Lecture 2

  • ARTS IIIA

    • 1976 Enhancement

    • 29 Sites

    • Radar and Beacon Tracking Level

  • Features

    • Conflict Alerting

    • Minimum Safe Altitude Warning

Page 2-14


Lecture 2

  • New York TRACON ARTS IIIA

    • Highest traffic volume

    • Maxed out ARTS IIIA resources

    • Hardware Replaced with VME

  • Current Use

    • Still Operating (STARS?)

Page 2-15


Lecture 2

  • ARTS II

    • III too expensive

    • TPX-42 interim

    • 1974 contract for Burroughs/Unisys

    • All installed by 1978

  • Features

    • BTL System

    • Simple Design, low maintenance

    • Routine Programming

  • ARTS IIA

    • Faster Processor more Memory

    • 256 Tracks with CA and MSAW

Page 2-16


Lecture 2

ATC on FDAD

Figure 2-9

Page 2-17


Lecture 2

  • En Route ARTS

    • Special Terminal Environments

  • Purpose

    • Center Design

    • Plan View Displays

  • Operation

    • Up to Five different Radars

    • Radar Mosaic

Page 2-18


Lecture 2

  • Differences

    • Mosaic

    • Plan View Displays

  • Micro-En Route ARTS

    • Replaced IOPs

    • COTS Hardware

    • Combined En Route and Terminal

Page 2-18


Lecture 2

Controller using PVD with EARTS

Figure 2-10

Page 2-19


Lecture 2

  • ARTS IIIE

    • Evolution of ARTS IIIA

    • COTS and Ethernet LANs

  • New York TRACON

    • First IIIE Site

    • Incrementally Developed

    • 1986-1989 Time Frame

Page 2-20


Lecture 2

  • Design

    • Functionally Distributed

    • 3400 Tracks and 6 Sensors

    • Fail Safe/Fail Soft

  • Testing

    • No downtime to Operation

    • System Performance very Strong

    • Installed at Large TRACONS

Page 2-20


Lecture 2

Controller using an ACD with ARTS IIIE

Page 2-21


Lecture 2

  • Common ARTS

    • Latest ARTS generation

    • Integrates ARTS IIA and IIIE

    • Software Baseline

  • Design

    • Uses COTS Hardware

    • Existing Displays & External Interfaces

    • Open Technology

Page 2-22


Lecture 2

  • Computer Software

    • American National Standards Institute C Code

    • User Datagram Protocol/Internet Protocol

    • Inter-Computer CSCI Communications

  • ARTS IIE Configuration

    • TP, CP, and SMC into the SP

    • Display Network Interface Processor

    • Dual Sensor and Large Single Sensor

    • Two System Processors

Page 2-22


Lecture 2

Air Traffic Control Tower Simulation

Page 2-23


Lecture 2

  • STARS

    • Standard Terminal Automation Replacement

    • System

    • FAA and DOD joint venture

    • 172 FAA Sites and 199 DOD Sites

  • Purpose

    • Provides Air Traffic Control Services

  • Display

    • 20 x 20 Color Display

    • Windows and Graphics

Page 2-24


Lecture 2

  • Workstations

    • Standard Processors

    • COTS Procurable and Upgradeable

  • Transition

    • ARTS Backrooms

    • Full transition after Controller Comfort

    • Along with technician training

Page 2-24


Lecture 2

STARS at El Paso, Texas

Page 2-25


Lecture 2

Review Questions

  • The alarm generated for predicted aircraft collisions is ____________ __________.

  • What system series is commonly found at high activity airports ___________.

  • ARTS is currently an acronym for the ______________ ___________ _____________ ____________.

  • STARS is an acronym for the ____________________ _______________ ____________________ ______________.

Conflict Alert

ARTS IIIA

Automated

Radar Terminal System

Standard

Terminal Automation Replacement System

Page 2-26


Take A Break


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