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Trustworthy Semantic Web Knowledge Management + E-Business + Semantic Web = Semantic E-Business. Dr. Bhavani Thuraisingham. November 3, 2008. Outline of the Unit. What is Knowledge Management? Basic concepts: Components and Models Organizational Learning Process

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Trustworthy semantic web knowledge management e business semantic web semantic e business

Trustworthy Semantic Web

Knowledge Management + E-Business + Semantic Web = Semantic E-Business

Dr. Bhavani Thuraisingham

November 3, 2008


Outline of the unit

Outline of the Unit

  • What is Knowledge Management?

  • Basic concepts: Components and Models

  • Organizational Learning Process

  • Knowledge Management Architecture

  • Secure Knowledge Management and Trust Negotiation

  • Knowledge Models

  • Some efforts

  • Integration of KM with E-Business and Semantic Web

  • Reference: IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, May 2006

  • Chapters 17 and 19 of the textbook


What is knowledge management

What is Knowledge Management

  • Knowledge management, or KM, is the process through which organizations generate value from their intellectual property and knowledge-based assets

  • KM involves the creation, dissemination, and utilization of knowledge

  • Reference: http://www.commerce-database.com/knowledge-management.htm?source=google


Knowledge management components

Knowledge Management Components

Knowledge

Components of

Management:

Components,

Cycle and

Technologies

Cycle:

Technologies:

Components:

Knowledge, Creation

Expert systems

Strategies

Sharing, Measurement

Collaboration

Processes

And Improvement

Training

Metrics

Web


Knowledge models

Knowledge Models

  • Level 1: Highest Level

    • Mental models utilized by psychologists

    • Social models (e.g. social network models) used by sociologists

  • Level 2: Mid-level

    • Models utilized by expert systems

    • Process modeling

  • Level: Bottom level

    • Models understood by machines

    • E.g., rule-based, frame-based, etc.


Trustworthy semantic web knowledge management e business semantic web semantic e business

Organizational Learning Process

Diffusion -

Tacit, Explicit

Integration

Modification

Identification

Creation

Metrics

Action

Incentives

Source:

Reinhardt and Pawlowsky

also see: Tools in Organizational Learning

http://duplox.wz-berlin.de/oldb/forslin.html


Trustworthy semantic web knowledge management e business semantic web semantic e business

Six Principals of Effective Learning

  • Effective Learning Requires:

    • Understanding

      1) Mental models, paradigms, context, observation, assumptions, opinion, fact, truth

      2) Systems Thinking - Variation

    • Skills

      3) Ability to challenge assumptions

      4) Listen to Understand

    • Process

      5) Complete observe, assess (reflection, gain understanding), design (develop theory, prediction, vision), implement (test), cycle

      6) Teach others


Trustworthy semantic web knowledge management e business semantic web semantic e business

Knowledge Management Metrics - The Goal of Metrics

  • Measuring Success (How am I doing?)

  • Benchmarking (How am I comparatively doing?)

  • Tracking Improvement (Am I getting better?)

  • Direct

    • future investment (technology, employees)

    • strategy

    • alignment (culture, incentives)

“One way to ensure your doing worse is to not measure” - Adapted from Pressman


Trustworthy semantic web knowledge management e business semantic web semantic e business

Learning By-Product Measures

  • Papers in Competitive Journals and Magazines

  • Percentage New Technology compared to all Technology

  • Process Cycle Time

  • Employee Surveys

    • Involvement with decisions

    • Recognition for work achieved

    • Access to information

    • Rewarding risk taking

    • Overall Satisfaction

  • Employee Retention

  • ‘Employee Suggestion Process


Trustworthy semantic web knowledge management e business semantic web semantic e business

Knowledge Management: Incentive-based Approaches

  • Receiver

  • Positive Incentives

    • Knowledge Gained

    • Can teach others what is learned

  • Teacher

  • Positive Incentives

    • “Knowledge Transfer Champion” prestige

    • Can improve knowledge

  • Negative Incentives

    • Time

    • Unqualified teacher

  • Negative Incentives

    • Time

    • Students not willing to learn


Knowledge management strategies processes metrics and tools

Knowledge Management: Strategies, Processes, Metrics and Tools

Knowledge Management: Within and Across

Corporations and Agencies

Strategies

e.g., Management

Plans; Policies;

Data sharing vs. Privacy

Processes

e.g., best

practices

Tools

e.g., Semantic Web

Metrics

e.g., web usage


Knowledge management architecture

Knowledge Management Architecture

Knowledge Creation and Acquisition Manager

Knowledge Representation

Manager

Knowledge Dissemination and Sharing

Manager

Knowledge Manipulation

Manager


Knowledge exchange annotation engine kean

Knowledge Exchange & AnnotationEngine (KEAN)

  • Resides on any web-accessible knowledge base (any intranet, www)

  • Increases incentive to share information

    • Author gets positive and negative feedback about information that is submitted

    • Feedback system - no more publishing documents that disappear into the ether

    • Prestige - top rated document views

  • Quality filters steer user towards best information

  • Domain specific instances of KEAN are created

  • Works with Java enabled browser


The three versions of kean architecture

The Three Versions of KEAN Architecture

  • Version 1 “beta version”

    • No reuse

    • Two-tiered

    • Stored procedures

  • Version 2 “newest version”

    • GUI reuse via JavaBeans

    • Two-tiered

    • JDBC access to database

  • Version 3 “final version”

    • Logic reuse via Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB)

    • Three-tiered

    • CORBA access to objects


Structure of version 1 beta version of kean

Structure of Version 1 - Beta Version of KEAN

Stored

Procedures

(PL/SQL)

ORACLE WEB

SERVER

  • Html

  • JavaScript

  • Applets

  • ORACLE

“Thin http” client

Database tier


Structure of version 2

Structure of Version 2

Code reuse with a two tier architecture

JDBC

ORACLE WEB

SERVER

  • KeanBeans

  • ORACLE

“Thick” client

Database tier


Structure of version 3

Structure of Version 3

web Server

  • KeanBeans

  • RDBMSs

  • and

  • OODBMS

  • CORBA ORB

  • EJB

“thin” client

middle tier

server tier


Secure knowledge management

Secure Knowledge Management

  • Protecting the intellectual property of an organization

  • Access control including role-based access control

  • Security for process/activity management and workflow

    • Users must have certain credentials to carry out an activity

  • Composing multiple security policies across organizations

  • Security for knowledge management strategies and processes

  • Risk management and economic tradeoffs

  • Digital rights management and trust negotiation


Trust management and negotiation

Trust Management and Negotiation

  • Design a Trust Model

    • Investigate the current trust models. Identify the inadequacies of current trust models and design a model for the semantic web/DIVO

      • Components include trust management, trust negotiation as well as economic tradeoffs

  • Design a Language for specifying Trust policies

    • Start with XML, RDF and Web Rules language and incorporate features for trust management and negotiation

  • Design and develop techniques for enforcing the trust policies

    • Automated Trust Negotiation: A attempts to access database D based on access control policies; However before A can access D, triggers go off and owner of D exchanges credential information with A (


Knowledge management for coalitions

Knowledge Management for Coalitions

Knowledge for Coalition

Export

Export

Knowledge

Knowledge

Export

Knowledge

Component

Component

Knowledge for

Knowledge for

Agency A

Agency C

Component

Knowledge for

Agency B


Status and directions

Status and Directions

  • Knowledge management has exploded due to the web

  • Knowledge Management has different dimensions

    • Technology, Business

  • Tools are emerging

  • Need effective partnerships between business leaders, technologists and policy makers

  • Major direction is integrating E-Business processes and semantic web technologies for knowledge management


Semantic e business

Semantic E-Business

  • E-Business processes (e.g., order management, supply chain management, contracts management, workflow management)

  • Service oriented architectures

  • Apply semantic web technologies such as XML, RDF, Ontologies and RulesML to represent data and reason about the data for the e-business processes

  • Results in effective knowledge management as organization is getting benefits

  • The topic is called Semantic E-Business

  • IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, March 2006


Some efforts 1

Some Efforts - 1

  • Messaging (ebMS) : This is a specialization of web services for business to business applications.

  • Business Process and Collaboration (ebBP) : This set of specification enables collaboration among business partners.

  • Collaboration Protocol Profile and Agreement (CPPA) : Their effort provides definitions for the sets of information used in business collaborations.

  • Registry and Repository : The goal of this effort is to come up with specification hat enable interoperable registries and repositories

  • Core Components (CCTS) : This effort focuses on technologies such as context and content assembly.


Some efforts 2

Some Efforts - 2

  • Semantic web technologies have many applications in knowledge management. For example, we need ontologies to capture the represent knowledge and reason about the knowledge.

  • Paul Warren gives an example on how ”a political scientist, Sally who wants to research the extent to which British Prime Minister Tony Blair's stance on Zimbabwe has changed over a year and what factors might have caused that change.”

  • He further states that “in the world of the Semantic Web, Sally could search for everything written by Blair on this topic over a specific time period. She could also search for transcripts of his speeches. Information markup wouldn't stop at the article or report level but would also exist at the article section level. So, Sally could also locate articles written by political commentators that contain transcripts of Blair's speeches”

  • Now knowledge management also has applications for building the semantic web. For example, prior knowledge captured as a result of knowledge management can be used by agents to better understand the web pages. With respect to security, in the example by Warren, confidentiality, privacy and trust policies will determine the extent to which Sally trusts the articles and has access to the articles in putting together her report on Tony Blair’s speeches.


Some efforts obelix

Some Efforts: OBELIX

  • Ontologies have also been developed for e-commerce applications specified in languages such as RDF, RDF-S, OWL and OWL-S

  • For example, in the Obelix project a very good description of e-business and ontologies is provided. The authors state that a problem with e-commerce is the vague ideas that lack precise description they then discuses their approach which they call e3value which is based on requirements engineering and they define ontologies for e-commerce.

  • It is stated that “OBELIX is the first ontology-based e-business system of its kind in the world to provide smart, scaleable integration and interoperability capabilities”.

  • It is also stated that this project “ incorporates ontology management and configuration, an e-business application server and ontology-based e-application tools as well as an e-business library.”

  • OBLEIX is a European Commission project and the goal is to automate e-business services in a semantic web environment which has come to be called semantic e-business.


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