Endocrine system and diabetes
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Endocrine System and Diabetes. Fran Battaglia Jen Ng Joshua Paik Julie Dilollo Stephen Silva. Overview - Function. Network of glands that release signals for regulation in the form of hormones.  Mood Growth Development Tissue Function Metabolism

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Endocrine System and Diabetes

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Endocrine system and diabetes

Endocrine Systemand Diabetes

Fran Battaglia

Jen Ng

Joshua Paik

Julie Dilollo

Stephen Silva


Overview function

Overview - Function

  • Network of glands that release signals for regulation in the form of hormones.

    •  Mood

    • Growth

    • Development

    • Tissue Function

    • Metabolism

  • Hormones are chemicalmessengers released in the blood that transfer instructions and information from one set of cells to another.

    • Target cells have receptors specific to the structure of a hormone.


Overview function1

Overview- Function

Types of Signaling:

  • Endocrine - a series of ductless glands that secrete hormones, signaling each other in sequence.

    • example: thyroid, pituitary

  • Exocrine - less vascular glands that do not secrete into the blood.

    • example: sweat glands, gastrointestinal glands

  • Regulation of hormone secretion is either monitored by the gland that originally secreted the hormone, or by another gland.

    • Negative feedback loops


Overview major glands

Overview - Major Glands

HYPOTHALAMUS

  •  Located in the lower central part of the brain.

  • Connection between endocrine and nervous system.

  • Control center that either stimulates or suppresses the excretions of the pituitary.

    PITUITARY

  • Located under the hypothalamus.

  •  "Master Gland" = makes the hormones that control other glands.

  •  Anterior Lobe

    •  Regulates activity of the thyroid, adrenals, and reproductive glands

  • Posterior Lobe

    •  Releases antidiuretic hormone - water balance regulation

      •  Endorphins - reduce sensitivity to pain

      • Oxytocin - triggers contractions of the uterus during labor


Overview major glands1

Overview - Major Glands

THYROID

  • Located in front part of lower neck.

  • Produces the hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine.

    • control rate at which cells burn fuels from food to create energy.

    • Amount of hormone in bloodstream is directly proportional to the rate of metabolic processes.

  • Bone growth and development of the nervous system.

    PARATHYROID

  • Four small glands attached to the thyroid.

  • Regulation of calcium levels in blood.


Overview major glands2

Overview - Major Glands

ADRENAL

  •  A pair of glands, one on top of each kidney

  •  Adrenal Cortex

    •  Produces hormones called corticosteroids

      • Regulate salt and water balance

      •  Metabolism

      • Immune system

      •  Sexual development and function

  • Adrenal Medulla

    •  Produces epinephrine (a.k.a. adrenaline)

      • Increases blood pressure and heart rate

        PINEAL GLAND

  • Located in the brain

  • Releases melatonin

    • Wake-sleep cycle regulation


Overview major glands3

Overview - Major Glands

GONADS

  •  Male and female main source of sex hormones.

  • Male

    •  Testes in the scrotum secrete androgens, most important = testosterone

    • Regulate body changes associated with sexual development.

    •  Testosterone regulates production of sperm in testes.

  • Female

    • Ovaries, located in the pelvis

    •  Produce eggs

    •  Estrogen and progesterone production

      •  Support sexual development, including regulation of menstrual cycle.

        PANCREAS

  • Secretes two hormones: glucagon and insulin

    •  Blood sugar regulation


Endocrine system and diabetes

The Glands of the Endocrine System

http://www.supernutrients.com.au/endocrineSystem2.gif


Insulin glucose interaction

Insulin/Glucose Interaction

  • Both Diabetes Type 1 and Type 2 share one feature:

    •  Elevated blood sugar (glucose) levels due to insufficiencies of insulin

  • Glucose molecules are small units of energy extracted from food or adipose. After the food or fat cells have been broken down, glucose is temporarily in the bloodstream until it can enter the body cells and be used for energy.

  • Insulin is secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas when the BGL (Blood Glucose Level) is elevated and transported in the plasma to the liver and muscle cells. It binds to the cell membranes and makes them permeable to glucose.


Type 1

Type 1

  • Autoimmune disease that affects 0.3% on average

  • The body's immune system attacks and destroys the beta cells in the pancreas, which are the endocrine cells that secrete insulin

  • Subsequently, insufficient insulin is produced, the muscle and liver cells cannot absorb glucose, and the BGL rises above healthy limits

  •  Victims of Type 1 Diabetes must be administered daily injections of insulin in order to survive.

  • Why the immune system attacks beta pancreatic cells is not yet understood. Researchers have hypothesized about the involvement of genetic, environmental, and viral factors, but there is no strong support for any theory yet.


Etiology of type 1

Genetics

Poor diet (malnutrition)

Environment

Etiology of Type 1

In most cases, diabetes occurs because:

    -abnormal secretion of some hormones in blood

        -act as antagonists to insulin


Type 2

Type 2

  • Also known as non -insulin-dependent or adult-onset diabetes

    •  NIIDM

  • Body produces enough insulin but cannot utilize effectively because liver and muscle cells are resistant to it. Insulin Resistance develops gradually over time, and severity differs from case to case.

  • Usually develops during middle age

    •  80% of cases occur after the age of 50

      •  Incidences increase with age factor


Type 21

Type 2

  • Lifestyle factors (obesity and sedentary lifestyles)

    •  May be important in triggering genetic elements that cause type

  • 80% of people diagnosed are overweight


Etiology of type 2

Hereditary or Inherited Traits

Age

Malnutrition

Obesity and Fat Distribution

Sedentary Lifestyle

Stress

Drug Induced

Infection

Sex

Hypertension

Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins

Etiology of Type 2


Etiology of type 21

Etiology of Type 2

  • Hereditary Traits - Through genes pass from generations, a person can inherit diabetes

  • Malnutrition Related Diabetes - Improper nutrition, low protein and fiber intake and high intake of refined products

  • Obesity and Fat Distribution - Being overweight = increased insulin resistance

  • Stress - Either physical injury or emotional disturbance is blamed as initial cause of the disease


Etiology of type 22

Etiology of Type 2

  • Drug Induced - Certain drugs such as Clorazil, Zyprexa, and Risperdal are known to induce the disease

  • Infection - Some of the strephylococci is supposed to be responsible for pancreatic infection

  • Sex - Commonly seen in elderly men or in women with multiple pregnancies

  • Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins - High cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood is related to high blood sugars


Symptoms of diabetes

Symptoms of Diabetes

  • Increased thirst

  • Frequent urination

  • Increased appetite

  • Fatigue and irritability

  • Blurred vision

  • Frequent or slow-healing infections

  • Erectile dysfunction

  • Tingling/numbness in the hands/feet

    *Often people with Type 2 Diabetes have no symptoms


Gestational diabetes mellitus

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

  •  Hormonal changes during pregnancy which make glucose available to the fetus cause the mother's cells to decrease in their responsiveness to insulin (so that there is more glucose for the fetus) and insulin production is reduced.

  • As a result, the mother's muscle and liver cells absorb less glucose, causing fatigue, dizziness, altered mental status, and the other common symptoms of Types 1 and 2 Diabetes.

  • In most cases, the issue is resolved when the mother's hormones stabilize after delivery.

  • Occasionally, the mother's cells remain insensitive to insulin even after the insulin-blocking hormones return to normal levels, and she develops Type 2 Diabetes.


Styles of treatments

 Western treatment

idea:if there’s a problem in the body, treat it with medication

attack one area to cure it.

Eastern Treatment

Idea: to restore body back to normal state. If the body was normal in the first place, it wouldn't have gotten sick.

treat not only one specific area, instead, they treat multiple areas that could be effected by the disease

Styles of treatments


Western treatment

Western treatment

  • insulin injections

    • taken daily: two to three injections per day around meal times (for type 1)

  • regulated diets

  • exercise

  • oral medication

    • Sulfonylureas

    • Meglitinides

    • Biguanides

    • Thiazolidinediones

    • Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors

    • DPP-4 inhibitors


Eastern treatment

Eastern treatment

  • acupressure massage-reduce blood sugar level

  • qi flow= stability

    • perception of air and flow in the body

  • acupuncture

    • yin and yang

      • determination of how the body works is split into yin and yang-->the organs are all separated into yin and yang. If a yin organ is having problems, they will help it out by balancing the yin and yang by treating more yin organs

  • dieting

    • asian food remedies (ex: congee)


Hyperadrenocorticism cushing s syndrome

Hyperadrenocorticism(Cushing's Syndrome)

Basic Information

  •     Cushing's is when the body has to much cortisol in the blood

    • Causes

      • glucocorticoid drugs (drugs with cortisol)

      • tumors

        • pituitary

        • tumors release adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) which elevates cortisol

        • adrenal

        • releases excess cortisol


Cushings part 2

Cushings part 2

Symptoms

  •     weight gain (central obesity)

    • trunk of face, collar bone, back of neck

  •  sweatiness, dialated blood vessels, thinning of skin, purple/red stretch marks, male pattern hair growth, baldness, hypercalcemia

    • excess cortisol also causes

      •  insomnia, aromatase (stops estrogen production), libido, impotence, loss of menstrual cycle, infertility, euphoria/psychosis, depression/anxiety, sore aching joints

        Treatments

  •     stop taking drugs with cortisol or remove tumors   surgically


Acromegaly

Acromegaly

Basic Information

  • when the pituitary gland creates excess growth hormone (GH) after epiphyseal plate closure after puberty

    • Causes

      • 90 percent of cases are caused by pituitary adenoma others are caused by tumors in the pancreas. lungs, or adrenal glands


Acromegaly1

Acromegaly

Symptoms

  • enlargenment of soft tissue areas

  • thickening of skin

  • swelling internal organs

  • expansion of skull

  • brow protrusion

  • jaw protrusion

  • hypertrichosis, hyperpigmentation, hyperhidrosis


Acromegaly2

Acromegaly

Treatment

  • surgical removal of tumor

  • drugs

  • radiation

    • patients must be monitored carefully to make sure there is no reccurence


Sources

Sources

http://kidshealth.org/parent/general/body_basics/endocrine.html#

http://bloodsugardiabetic.com/diabetestreatment/insulin/how-does-insulin-work/

http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/overview/

http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/gestational/

http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/408910_2

http://www.diabetesandrelatedhealthissues.com

http://www.healthcentral.com/diabetes/h/what-are-the-causes-of-diabetes.html?ic=4001

http://www.disability-resource.com/diabetes/the_etiology_of_diabetes_mellitus.htm

http://diabetesinformationhub.com/WhatCausesDiabetes.php

http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/treatment-and-care/medication/oral-medications/what-are-my-options.html

Flaws, Bob. The Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus with Chinese Medicine A Textbook and Clinical Manual.


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