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December 5, 2013 Angienette Estonina, Nicole Knight Cathy O’Connor, Jeff Zwiers, Gabriela Uro PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Constructive Classroom Conversations : OUSD-SFUSD Collaboration. December 5, 2013 Angienette Estonina, Nicole Knight Cathy O’Connor, Jeff Zwiers, Gabriela Uro SFUSD- OUSD.org. Objectives. Create “common enough” understandings of output and interaction

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December 5, 2013 Angienette Estonina, Nicole Knight Cathy O’Connor, Jeff Zwiers, Gabriela Uro

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Constructive Classroom Conversations:

OUSD-SFUSD Collaboration

December 5, 2013

Angienette Estonina, Nicole Knight

Cathy O’Connor, Jeff Zwiers, Gabriela Uro

SFUSD-OUSD.org


Objectives

  • Create “common enough” understandings of output and interaction

  • Define the most pressing questions to answer

  • Figure out best ways to collaborate to answer our questions

  • Develop drafts of products to serve both districts (e.g., tools, web site)


Our aim is for ALL students and their teachers to engage in classroom interactions that foster

•content learning, •language development, and•complex reasoning


In many classrooms we do see such interactions going on, now and then…

So our collective question is this:

  • How can we increase these productive interactions,

  • and how can we improve them?


How can we increase these productive interactions,

(note: this doesn’t mean six hours a day)

and how can we improve them?

(make them more inclusive, and more productive for all students, particularly language learners)


This general question,

how can we increase and improve classroom interactions that foster content learning, language learning, and complex reasoning?

has four distinct dimensions:


What resources and strategies are most useful for differentlanguage proficiency levels – those needing substantial, moderate, and light scaffolding?

  • What resources will help support good conversations in all content areas?

  • How do we get students to participate most productively?

  • How can we improve teachers’ capacity to conduct these interactions?


Is this a productive interaction?

Laura: What caused the fall?

Eli: The text said disease and war.

Fran: It also said crops and politics.

Amy: Let’s write down all of them.


3a 9ab

3c - 6 c - 4

÷

2

Is this a productive interaction?

Mansur: I think there are different ways to solve it.

Lynn: So? Just do what the teacher did.

Mansur: But why did she turn the fraction over

Lynn: Who cares? Just turn it over.

Mansur: OK.


Is this a productive interaction?

Samir: What’s your hypothesis?

Delia: The feather will fall slower.

Noe: I think they will fall the same.

Aida: I think the feather’ll land first.


Is this a productive interaction?

Lisa: I think the theme is being honest.

Edgar: Yeah. That’s a good one.

Lisa: What do you think?

Edgar: I like yours about being honest.

Lisa: So are we done?


A Major Shift

“Why do I have to talk to a partner?

I already know the answer.”


Constructive Conversation Skills

(Mini-teachers)

Goal: Students independently build an idea (e.g., knowledge, agreement, solution), using the following skills:

Create Idea

Build Idea

Negotiate Ideas

Clarify

Idea

Fortify Idea


Formative Assessment Tool for Constructive Conversations

  • Questions:

  • How do we scaffold skills differently in whole class, small group, and paired interactions?

  • How do we address ELs’ differing ideas for knowledge shaping in interactions?

  • How can we scaffold academic message organization, syntax, and vocabulary for ELs?

From Zwiers, O’Hara, & Pritchard (2014), Common Core Standards in diverse classrooms: Essential practices for developing academic language and disciplinary literacy.Stenhouse. | ALDNetwork.org


Conversations at Beginning Levels of Proficiency

Learning objective: Use reasons to argue the importance of a historical figure.

Prompt: Talk about what makes Abraham Lincoln a hero.

A: How Lincoln a hero?

B: He stop slavery, the slaves.

A: How?

B: The war.

A: He fighted to stop slavery.

B: Muchos(many) died in the war.

A: Very bad.

B: But slavery is more bad. Lincoln is hero.

A: He won the war. They were free.


Comparing and weighing evidence with aArgument Balance Scale

Activity for supporting ideas:argument scale

Reasons & Evidence

My responses to opposing points

Reasons & Evidence

Opposing position

3-D Version

Was Lincoln a hero?

No

My position

Yes

2D-Scale


So the potential of these academic conversations and productive interactions is great…

Nevertheless—

This is not a trivial change.

Teachers need support—

three kinds of support.


  • How can we improve teachers’ capacity to conduct these interactions?

1) Support in managing interactions

2) Support in planning for productive conversations in their content areas

3) Support throughhelpful and insightful observation protocols


Why do teachers need support in managing academic conversations?

Because there are many obstacles.


We don’t have time!

What if no one talks?

I don't want to put them on the spot... some of my students are too shy to talk in front of everyone.

“Fear of behavior”

Some of my students are beginning English language learners.


Some of my students have IEPs. I can't call on them…

What if someone says something and it’s totally wrong, because they just totally don’t get what we’re talking about? Won’t that be humiliating for them?

What if Spencer just hogs the floor, as usual?


Getting past these obstacles…

1. Basic goals for academic conversations

2. Basic talk tools to achieve the goals:

talk moves and practices

3. Classroom norms that support respectful and equitable discussion


FOUR GOALS

to create productive discussion...

whether in

whole group,

small group, or

pair interactions


Goal 1. Help individual students to share their reasoning so that it can be heard and understood.

If only one or two students can do this, you don’t have a discussion, you have a monologue or a dialogue.


Goal 2. Help students to orient to others and listen to what others say.

Your ultimate goal involves sharing ideas, agreements and disagreements, arguments and counter-arguments, not simply a series of students giving their own, unconnected opinions.


Goal 3. Help students to work on deepening their own reasoning.

Good discussion keeps a focus on reasoning. The teacher must scaffold this consistently, getting students to dig deeper.


Goal 4. Help students to work with the reasoning of other students.

Authentic discussion, or productive academic conversations, involves students actually taking up the ideas of other students, responding to them and working with them.


A supportive but complex relationship

4. Helping students to work with the reasoning of others.

3. Helping students to work on deepening their own reasoning.

2. Helping students to orient to others and listen to what others say.

1. Helping individual students to externalize their thinking– to share their reasoning out loud.


Goal 1. Help individual students to share their reasoning so that it can be heard and understood.

So how do teachers get this to happen?

Goal 2. Help students to orient to others and listen to what others say.

Goal 3. Help students to dig deeper in their own reasoning.

Goal 4. Help students to work with the reasoning of others.


These things won’t happen consistently just by virtue of a good question, or an exciting topic.

Goal 1. Help individual students to share their reasoning so that it can be heard and understood.

Goal 2. Help students to orient to others and listen to what others say.

Goal 3. Help students to dig deeper in their own reasoning.

Goal 4. Help students to work with the reasoning of others.


Goal 1. Help individual students to share their reasoning so that it can be heard and understood.

First, the teachers we studied had set up classroom norms for using talk respectfully, and for ensuring equitable participation.

Goal 2. Help students to orient to others and listen to what others say.

Goal 3. Help students to dig deeper in their own reasoning.

Goal 4. Help students to work with the reasoning of others.


Goal 1. Help individual students to share their reasoning so that it can be heard and understood.

Second, they used a variety of talk tools that helped them achieve each of the four goals.

Goal 2. Help students to orient to others and listen to what others say.

Goal 3. Help students to dig deeper in their own reasoning.

Goal 4. Help students to work with the reasoning of others.


Let’s look at a few of these tools in action, from the standpoint of the teacher trying to guide a discussion…


An example from Word Generation 6th grade:


Excerpt:

Global climate statistics suggest that the average temperature of the earth’s surface is increasing….Scientists attribute these changing environmental conditions to human activities like driving cars that use a lot of gas.….

Scientists project that temperatures will keep rising if we continue to ignore the impact of our activities. Should people be allowed to drive SUVs, which use more gas than typical vehicles? Should companies be allowed to make them? ….


The conversation usually starts

when the teacher poses a question:


“So SUVs, those really big cars, use a lot more gas. Do you think people should be allowed to drive SUVs?”

What if the response is this:

24 blank faces. 1 or 2 hands up.


You think:

Gee, I can’t even get to Goal 1. I’m just trying to get them to say what they think. Why won’t they talk?


You realize:

They need time to think! (and maybe time to practice what they want to say!)


Goal 1 Talk Tools:

•Wait time

•Stop and jot (1-2 minutes)

•Turn and talk (1-2 minutes) (also known as Think-Pair-Share, Consider & Commit, etc.)

Then…ask the question again.


So you give them time to think, time to practice, and then you ask the question again…


“So SUVs, those really big cars, use a lot more gas. Do you think people should be allowed to drive SUVs?”

What if the response is this:

Javier: Well, the thing is, it’s not… like… yeah. Um…


You think:

Huh?? I didn’t understand that at all!

Still stuck at Goal 1!


Now what do I do? I don’t want to embarrass him, and I don’t want to feel like I’m putting him on the spot…


Another talk tool:

“Say more…”

  • Can you say more about that?

  • Could you say that again?

  • Could you give us an example?


So Javier explains, and you start to understand his thinking. And that is a positive thing in several ways.


There are talk move “families” for each of the four goals

4. Helping students to work with the reasoning of others.

What do others think?

3. Helping students to work on deepening their own reasoning.

Why do you think that?

2. Helping students to orient to others and listen to what others say.

Can anyone rephrase that?

1. Helping individual students to externalize their thinking– to share their reasoning out loud.

Say more…


But it’s not always so clear which one to choose…

What do others think?

Why do you think that?

Can anyone rephrase that?

Say more…


So teachers need examples to work with, to get used to thinking prospectively about what will come up…


Norms: what does it take to get started?


  • How can we improve teachers’ capacity to conduct these interactions?

1) Support in managing interactions

2) Support in planning for productive conversations in their content areas

3) Support throughhelpful and insightful observation protocols


  • How can we improve teachers’ capacity to conduct these interactions?

1) Support in managing interactions

2) Support in planning for productive conversations in their content areas

3) Support throughhelpful and insightful observation protocols


  • How can we improve teachers’ capacity to conduct these interactions?

1) Support in managing interactions

2) Support in planning for productive conversations in their content areas

3) Support throughhelpful and insightful observation protocols


The complexity of talk:

“Talk moves” can turn toxic…


Student Engagement

Intelligibility

Content

Coherence

Equity


Academic conversations are complex, need to be planned, and can be exhausting.

They need to start small—

Even 15 minutes a day will be challenging at first.


If someone comes in to observe with a checklist of “talk moves”—

Enthusiasm and motivation can rapidly turn to toxicity.


Conversations in 5th Gr. Language Arts/ELD

Context

  • 5th grade Language Arts/ELD class in San Francisco

  • Intermediate and early intermediate speakers.

This Clip

  • After reading an allegory for the Holocaust, students discuss what could have happened if the animals had stood together.

  • They practice stating opinions,paraphrasing, and clarifying


Conversations in Kindergarten Math

Context

  • Kindergarten in

  • A range of ELs and LMs

This Clip

  • Teacher is working on linking vocabulary and 3 varieties of mathematical representations in service of number sense. Working with results of survey: how many people are wearing shoelaces?


Website-based Resource Development SFUSD-OUSD.org


Website-based Resource Development


Website-based Resource Development


Website-based Resource Development


Website-based Resource Development SFUSD-OUSD.org


Video – Practicing Clarification & Elaboration Moves

Context: 6th grade History, Westlake, Viet-ly Nguyen; Focus on practicing clarification and elaboration responses; Watch for strengths and skills to work on.

ALDNetwork.org


PD Topics Customized for Distinct Audiences


PD Topics Customized for Distinct Audiences


Further support by type of classroom


Further support by type of classroomand grade

K-2

3-6

7-12


Setting norms: classroom artifacts


the "Green Sheet"


Another approach…


Another approach…


Talk Tools

Support Materials


PD refresher excerpts

(short 2-3 minute powerpoints with voiceovers, turned into movie files that can be played through or stopped and started at will)


Instructional routines: step by step descriptions


Step by step description of

‘one complex sentence at a time’ (LWFillmore)


Act& Assess

Action Research Cycle

  • Use new & adapted interventions and strategies

  • Gather data on student learning and/or teacher practices for fostering interactions during lessons

How can we develop teacher practices for fostering effective classroom interactions, evidenced by _____________, through strategies such as__________

How can we _________________________________,______________________________ evidenced by _____________, through strategies such as__________

Reflect & Plan

Analyze Evidence

  • Clarify what teaching and learning should look like

  • Agree on evidence to bring in that shows changes

  • Create & adjust strategies

  • Make a plan for assessment and data collection

  • Use observations, student work, conversations, video, …

  • Find patterns, surprises, gaps

  • What is evidence showing and not showing?

  • Brainstorm factors that caused the patterns


Final Word & Appreciations


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