Atomic structure
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Atomic Structure. Who really knows what an ATOM is anyway???. What is an atom?. Atom: the smallest unit of matter that retains the identity of the substance First proposed by Democratus. ATOMS = BUILDING BLOCKS of all Matter Basic for : - For chemistry

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Atomic Structure

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Atomic structure

Atomic Structure

Who really knows what an ATOM is anyway???


What is an atom

What is an atom?

  • Atom: the smallest unit of matter that retains the identity of the substance

  • First proposed by Democratus


Atomic structure

ATOMS = BUILDING BLOCKS of all Matter

Basic for :

- For chemistry

-for everything in the Universe.

ALL MATTER IS MADE UP of Atoms…………….


Atomic structure atoms are composed of 2 regions

Atomic Structure Atoms are composed of 2 regions:

Nucleus

Electron

Cloud


What does eggs and suckers have to do with atomic structure

What does eggs and suckers have to do with atomic structure?


Atomic structure1

Atomic Structure


Atoms 2 regions

Atoms 2 REGIONS

Nucleus

Electron

Cloud


Atomic structure

Atomic Structure - 2 REGIONS

Electron

Cloud


Atomic structure

Nucleus

Atomic Structure

Electron Cloud


Draw a picture of an atom s 2 regions

Draw a picture of an atom’s 2 regions


What 3 sub atomic particles can i find in the nucleus and electron cloud regions of an atom

What 3 sub atomic particles can I find in the Nucleus and Electron Cloud Regions of an ATOM ?

  • Proton ( positive charge + )

  • Neutron ( negative charge - )

  • Electron ( neutral charge, no charge )


Where are the 3 sub atomic particles located

Where are the 3 sub atomic particles located ?

  • Location location ………………….

  • Where are they located …………….

  • Which region can I find the protons (positive charges)?

  • Which region can I find the electrons – charges ?

  • Where in the world are the neutral charges ?


Atomic structure2

Atomic Structure


What s in the electron cloud

What’s in the Electron Cloud?

  • What kind of charge does it have?

  • What kind of charge will you find in the Electron Cloud?

  • Where is the electron cloud located r outside the nucleus?


Electrons

Electrons

  • Negative charge -

  • Negative charge –

  • Outside the nucleus cloud taking up lots of space but little or no mass


What s in the nucleus

What’s in the Nucleus?

  • The nucleus contains what two sub atomic particles?

  • What kind of charges will you find in the Nucleus?

  • Where is the nucleus of an atom located?


Nucleus

Nucleus

  • Protons:positively charged subatomic particles

  • Neutrons:neutrally charged subatomic particles ( no charge )

  • Located in the center of the ATOM making up most of the mass of the atom


Subatomic particles

Subatomic Particles


How do these particles interact

How do these particles interact?

  • Protons and neutrons live compacted in the tiny positively charged nucleus accounting for most of the mass of the atom

  • The negatively charged electrons are small and have a relatively small mass but occupy a large volume of space outside the nucleus


How do the subatomic particles balance each other

How do the subatomic particles balance each other?

  • In an atom:

    • The protons = the electrons

      • If 20 protons are present in an atom then 20 electrons are there to balance the overall charge of the atom—atoms are neutral

    • The neutrons have no charge; therefore they do not have to equal the number of protons or electrons


How do we know the atomic number of subatomic particles in an atom

How do we know the Atomic number of subatomic particles in an atom?

  • Atomic number: this number indicates the number of protons in an atom

    • Ex: Hydrogen’s atomic number is 1

      • So hydrogen has 1 proton

    • Ex: Carbon’s atomic number is 6

      • So carbon has 6 protons

        **The number of protons identifies the atom.

        Ex. 2 protons = He, 29 protons = Cu


How do we know the mass number of subatomic particles in an atom

How do we know the Mass number of subatomic particles in an atom?

  • Mass number: the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus

    • Ex: hydrogen can have a mass of 3.

      Since it has 1 proton it must have 2 neutrons

    • # of neutrons = mass # - atomic #


Atomic structure

  • Atomic Number = # protons and equals the amount of electrons in an atom

  • Mass Number = # protons and neutrons

    • Why does this make sense? Because the nucleus has all the mass and who lives in the Nucleus? So protons and neutrons equal the mass number……..


Determining the number of protons and neutrons

Determining the number of protons and neutrons

  • Li has a mass number of 7 and an atomic number of 3

    • Protons = 3 (same as atomic #)

    • Neutrons= 7-3 = 4 (mass # - atomic #)

  • Ne has a mass number of 20 and an atomic number of 10

    • Protons = 10

    • Neutrons = 20 - 10= 10


What about the electrons

What about the electrons?

  • The electrons are equal to the number of protons

    • So e- = p = atomic #

  • Ex: He has a mass # of 4 and an atomic # of 2

    • p+ = 2

    • no = 2

    • e- =2


Determine the number of subatomic particles in the following

Determine the number of subatomic particles in the following:

  • Cl has a mass # of 35 and an atomic # of 17

    • p+ = 17,no = 18, e- = 17

  • K has a mass # of 39 and an atomic # of 19

    • P+ = 19,no = 20e- = 19


How exactly are the particles arranged

How exactly are the particles arranged?

  • Bohr Model of the atom:

    Reviewers think this could lead to misconceptions!

All of the protons and the neutrons

The 3rd ring can hold up to 18 e-

The 1st ring can hold up to 2 e-

The 4th ring and any after can hold up to 32 e-

The 2nd ring can hold up to 8 e-


What does carbon look like

What does carbon look like?

Mass # = 12 atomic # = 6

p+ = 6 no = 6e- = 6

6 p and 6 n live in the nucleus


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