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Atomic Structure. Who really knows what an ATOM is anyway???. What is an atom?. Atom: the smallest unit of matter that retains the identity of the substance First proposed by Democratus. ATOMS = BUILDING BLOCKS of all Matter Basic for : - For chemistry

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Atomic structure

Atomic Structure

Who really knows what an ATOM is anyway???


What is an atom
What is an atom?

  • Atom: the smallest unit of matter that retains the identity of the substance

  • First proposed by Democratus


ATOMS = BUILDING BLOCKS of all Matter

Basic for :

- For chemistry

-for everything in the Universe.

ALL MATTER IS MADE UP of Atoms…………….





Atoms 2 regions
Atoms 2 REGIONS

Nucleus

Electron

Cloud



Nucleus

Atomic Structure

Electron Cloud



What 3 sub atomic particles can i find in the nucleus and electron cloud regions of an atom
What 3 sub atomic particles can I find in the Nucleus and Electron Cloud Regions of an ATOM ?

  • Proton ( positive charge + )

  • Neutron ( negative charge - )

  • Electron ( neutral charge, no charge )


Where are the 3 sub atomic particles located
Where are the 3 sub atomic particles located ? Electron Cloud Regions of an ATOM ?

  • Location location ………………….

  • Where are they located …………….

  • Which region can I find the protons (positive charges)?

  • Which region can I find the electrons – charges ?

  • Where in the world are the neutral charges ?


Atomic structure2
Atomic Structure Electron Cloud Regions of an ATOM ?


What s in the electron cloud
What’s in the Electron Cloud? Electron Cloud Regions of an ATOM ?

  • What kind of charge does it have?

  • What kind of charge will you find in the Electron Cloud?

  • Where is the electron cloud located r outside the nucleus?


Electrons
Electrons Electron Cloud Regions of an ATOM ?

  • Negative charge -

  • Negative charge –

  • Outside the nucleus cloud taking up lots of space but little or no mass


What s in the nucleus
What’s in the Nucleus? Electron Cloud Regions of an ATOM ?

  • The nucleus contains what two sub atomic particles?

  • What kind of charges will you find in the Nucleus?

  • Where is the nucleus of an atom located?


Nucleus
Nucleus Electron Cloud Regions of an ATOM ?

  • Protons:positively charged subatomic particles

  • Neutrons:neutrally charged subatomic particles ( no charge )

  • Located in the center of the ATOM making up most of the mass of the atom


Subatomic particles
Subatomic Particles Electron Cloud Regions of an ATOM ?


How do these particles interact
How do these particles Electron Cloud Regions of an ATOM ? interact?

  • Protons and neutrons live compacted in the tiny positively charged nucleus accounting for most of the mass of the atom

  • The negatively charged electrons are small and have a relatively small mass but occupy a large volume of space outside the nucleus


How do the subatomic particles balance each other
How do the subatomic particles Electron Cloud Regions of an ATOM ? balance each other?

  • In an atom:

    • The protons = the electrons

      • If 20 protons are present in an atom then 20 electrons are there to balance the overall charge of the atom—atoms are neutral

    • The neutrons have no charge; therefore they do not have to equal the number of protons or electrons


How do we know the atomic number of subatomic particles in an atom
How do we know the Electron Cloud Regions of an ATOM ? Atomic number of subatomic particles in an atom?

  • Atomic number: this number indicates the number of protons in an atom

    • Ex: Hydrogen’s atomic number is 1

      • So hydrogen has 1 proton

    • Ex: Carbon’s atomic number is 6

      • So carbon has 6 protons

        **The number of protons identifies the atom.

        Ex. 2 protons = He, 29 protons = Cu


How do we know the mass number of subatomic particles in an atom
How do we know Electron Cloud Regions of an ATOM ? the Mass number of subatomic particles in an atom?

  • Mass number: the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus

    • Ex: hydrogen can have a mass of 3.

      Since it has 1 proton it must have 2 neutrons

    • # of neutrons = mass # - atomic #



Determining the number of protons and neutrons
Determining the number of protons and neutrons in an atom

  • Li has a mass number of 7 and an atomic number of 3

    • Protons = 3 (same as atomic #)

    • Neutrons= 7-3 = 4 (mass # - atomic #)

  • Ne has a mass number of 20 and an atomic number of 10

    • Protons = 10

    • Neutrons = 20 - 10= 10


What about the electrons
What about the electrons? in an atom

  • The electrons are equal to the number of protons

    • So e- = p = atomic #

  • Ex: He has a mass # of 4 and an atomic # of 2

    • p+ = 2

    • no = 2

    • e- =2


Determine the number of subatomic particles in the following
Determine the number of subatomic particles in the following:

  • Cl has a mass # of 35 and an atomic # of 17

    • p+ = 17, no = 18, e- = 17

  • K has a mass # of 39 and an atomic # of 19

    • P+ = 19, no = 20 e- = 19


How exactly are the particles arranged
How exactly are the particles arranged? following:

  • Bohr Model of the atom:

    Reviewers think this could lead to misconceptions!

All of the protons and the neutrons

The 3rd ring can hold up to 18 e-

The 1st ring can hold up to 2 e-

The 4th ring and any after can hold up to 32 e-

The 2nd ring can hold up to 8 e-


What does carbon look like
What does carbon look like? following:

Mass # = 12 atomic # = 6

p+ = 6 no = 6 e- = 6

6 p and 6 n live in the nucleus


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